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Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(1), 5; doi:10.3390/app6010005

Auralization of Accelerating Passenger Cars Using Spectral Modeling Synthesis

Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology, CH-8600 Duebendorf, Switzerland
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Academic Editor: Vesa Valimaki
Received: 28 September 2015 / Revised: 14 December 2015 / Accepted: 15 December 2015 / Published: 24 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Audio Signal Processing)
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Abstract

While the technique of auralization has been in use for quite some time in architectural acoustics, the application to environmental noise has been discovered only recently. With road traffic noise being the dominant noise source in most countries, particular interest lies in the synthesis of realistic pass-by sounds. This article describes an auralizator for pass-bys of accelerating passenger cars. The key element is a synthesizer that simulates the acoustical emission of different vehicles, driving on different surfaces, under different operating conditions. Audio signals for the emitted tire noise, as well as the propulsion noise are generated using spectral modeling synthesis, which gives complete control of the signal characteristics. The sound of propulsion is synthesized as a function of instantaneous engine speed, engine load and emission angle, whereas the sound of tires is created in dependence of vehicle speed and emission angle. The sound propagation is simulated by applying a series of time-variant digital filters. To obtain the corresponding steering parameters of the synthesizer, controlled experiments were carried out. The tire noise parameters were determined from coast-by measurements of passenger cars with idling engines. To obtain the propulsion noise parameters, measurements at different engine speeds, engine loads and emission angles were performed using a chassis dynamometer. The article shows how, from the measured data, the synthesizer parameters are calculated using audio signal processing. View Full-Text
Keywords: auralization; road traffic noise; passenger cars; sound synthesis; 43.50.Lj; 43.50.Rq; 43.28.Js; 43.60.Cg; 43.58.Jq auralization; road traffic noise; passenger cars; sound synthesis; 43.50.Lj; 43.50.Rq; 43.28.Js; 43.60.Cg; 43.58.Jq
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pieren, R.; Bütler, T.; Heutschi, K. Auralization of Accelerating Passenger Cars Using Spectral Modeling Synthesis. Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 5.

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