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Appl. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 1547-1559; doi:10.3390/app5041547

Synthesis and Physical and Chemical Properties of Hypergolic Chemicals such as N,N,N-Trimethylhydrazinium and 1-Ethyl-4-Methyl-1,2,4-Triazolium Salts

Department of Chemistry, Hannam University, Daejeon 305-811, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miguel Yus Astiz
Received: 9 October 2015 / Revised: 13 November 2015 / Accepted: 18 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
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Abstract

Hypergolic chemicals N,N,N-trimethylhydrazinium iodide, [TMH]+[I], and 1-ethyl-4-methyl-1,2,4-triazolium iodide, [EMT]+[I] were firstly synthesized by nucleophilic substitution (SN2). The successful synthesis of hypergolic chemicals [TMH]+[I] and [EMT]+[I] was confirmed by IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy and, GC-mass spectrometry. Subsequently the hypergolic chemicals [TMH]+[X] (X = CN, N3, NO3, NO2, ClO4, AlCl4) were prepared via an ion exchange reaction from [TMH]+[I] and [EMT]+[I], respectively. After that, a mixture of hypergolic chemicals was prepared by dissolving the synthesized hypergolic chemicals in 2-hydroxyethylhydrazine (HOCH2CH2NHNH2). The physical and chemical properties of the mixture such as decomposition temperature (Td), density (d), viscosity (η), and decomposition energy (ΔHd) was then evaluated to determine suitability for use as liquid rocket fuels. The ignition delay (ID) time of the mixture of hypergolic chemicals with [TMH]+[N3] and [TMH]+[CN] using H2O2 as an oxidizer was determined as 55.6 ms and 97.4 ms; respectively. The ID time of the mixture of hypergolic chemicals with [EMT]+[N3]; [EMT]+[CN]; [EMT]+[AlCl4]; and [EMT]+[I] using H2O2 as an oxidizer was also determined as 18.0 ms; 32.6 ms; 27.6 ms; and 7.96 ms; respectively. The synthesized mixture of hypergolic chemicals could thus be used as a rocket propellant liquid fuel. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypergolic chemicals; rocket propellant fuel; N,N,N-trimethylhydrazinium salts; ethyl-methyl-triazolium salts hypergolic chemicals; rocket propellant fuel; N,N,N-trimethylhydrazinium salts; ethyl-methyl-triazolium salts
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, Y.-S.; Son, G.-H.; Na, T.-K.; Choi, S.-H. Synthesis and Physical and Chemical Properties of Hypergolic Chemicals such as N,N,N-Trimethylhydrazinium and 1-Ethyl-4-Methyl-1,2,4-Triazolium Salts. Appl. Sci. 2015, 5, 1547-1559.

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