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Appl. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 1033-1049; doi:10.3390/app5041033

Multi-Bit Data Hiding Scheme for Compressing Secret Messages

1
Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science & Technology, No.123 University Road, Section 3, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan
2
Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology Doctoral Program, National Yunlin University of Science & Technology, No.123 University Road, Section 3, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in The International Multi-Conference on Engineering and Technology Innovation 2015, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 30 October–3 November 2015.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Wen-Hsiang Hsieh and Takayoshi Kobayashi
Received: 12 August 2015 / Revised: 19 October 2015 / Accepted: 23 October 2015 / Published: 4 November 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5547 KB, uploaded 4 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

The goal of data hiding techniques usually considers two issues, embedding capacity and image quality. Consequently, in order to achieve high embedding capacity and good image quality, a data hiding scheme combining run-length encoding (RLE) with multi-bit embedding is proposed in this paper. This work has three major contributions. First, the embedding capacity is increased 62% because the secret message is compressed before embedding into the cover image. Secondly, the proposed scheme keeps the multi-bit generalized exploiting modification direction (MGEMD) characteristics, which are effective to reduce modified pixels in the cover image and to maintain good stego image quality. Finally, the proposed scheme can prevent modern steganalysis methods, such as RS steganalysis and SPAM (subtractive pixel adjacency matrix), and is compared to MiPOD (minimizing the power of the optimal detector) scheme. From our simulation results and security discussions, we have the following results: First, there are no perceivable differences between the cover images and stego images from human inspection. For example, the average PSNR of stego images is about 44.61 dB when the secret message (80,000 bits) is embedded for test cover images (such as airplane, baboon, Lena) of size 512×512. Secondly, Appl. Sci. 2015, 5 1034 on average, 222,087 pixels were not modified after embedding for the cover image. That is to say, 12% less pixels are modified as compared to the MGEMD method. From the performance discussions, the proposed scheme achieves high embedding capacity and good image quality, but also maintains stego image security. View Full-Text
Keywords: RLE; MGEMD; RS steganalysis; embedding capacity RLE; MGEMD; RS steganalysis; embedding capacity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kuo, W.-C.; Kuo, S.-H.; Wuu, L.-C. Multi-Bit Data Hiding Scheme for Compressing Secret Messages. Appl. Sci. 2015, 5, 1033-1049.

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