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Optical Current Sensors for High Power Systems: A Review
INESC Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
Dept Física e Astronomia da faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
Centro de Competência de Ciências Exatas e da Engenharia, Universidade da Madeira, Campus da Penteada, 9000-390 Funchal, Portugal
Faculty of Health Sciences, University Fernando Pessoa, R. Carlos da Maia 296, 4200-150 Porto, Portugal
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 May 2012; in revised form: 15 June 2012 / Accepted: 18 June 2012 / Published: 2 July 2012
Abstract: The intrinsic advantages of optical sensor technology are very appealing for high voltage applications and can become a valuable asset in a new generation of smart grids. In this paper the authors present a review of optical sensors technologies for electrical current metering in high voltage applications. A brief historical overview is given together with a more detailed focus on recent developments. Technologies addressed include all fiber sensors, bulk magneto-optical sensors, piezoelectric transducers, magnetic force sensors and hybrid sensors. The physical principles and main advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Configurations and strategies to overcome common problems, such as interference from external currents and magnetic fields induced linear birefringence and others are discussed. The state-of-the-art is presented including commercial available systems.
Keywords: optical current sensors; magnetooptic current sensors; fiber optic current sensors; Faraday effect
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MDPI and ACS Style
Silva, R.M.; Martins, H.; Nascimento, I.; Baptista, J.M.; Ribeiro, A.L.; Santos, J.L.; Jorge, P.; Frazão, O. Optical Current Sensors for High Power Systems: A Review. Appl. Sci. 2012, 2, 602-628.
Silva RM, Martins H, Nascimento I, Baptista JM, Ribeiro AL, Santos JL, Jorge P, Frazão O. Optical Current Sensors for High Power Systems: A Review. Applied Sciences. 2012; 2(3):602-628.
Silva, Ricardo M.; Martins, Hugo; Nascimento, Ivo; Baptista, José M.; Ribeiro, António Lobo; Santos, José L.; Jorge, Pedro; Frazão, Orlando. 2012. "Optical Current Sensors for High Power Systems: A Review." Appl. Sci. 2, no. 3: 602-628.