Acute Traumatic Endotheliopathy in Isolated Severe Brain Injury and Its Impact on Clinical Outcome
AbstractStudy design: Prospective observational cohort. Objective: To investigate the difference in plasma levels of syndecan-1 (due to glycocalyx degradation) and soluble thrombomodulin (due to endothelial damage) in isolated severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with/without early coagulopathy. A secondary objective was to compare the effects of the degree of TBI endotheliopathy on hospital mortality among patients with TBI-associated coagulopathy (TBI-AC). Methods: Data was prospectively collected on isolated severe TBI (sTBI) patients with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≤8 less than 12 h after injury admitted to a level I trauma centre. Isolated sTBI patients with samples withdrawn prior to blood transfusion were stratified by conventional coagulation tests as coagulopathic (prothrombin time (PT) ≥ 16.7 s, international normalized ratio (INR) ≥ 1.27, and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) ≥ 28.8 s) and non-coagulopathic. Twenty healthy controls were also included. Plasma levels of thrombomodulin and syndecan-1 were estimated by ELISA. With receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, we defined endotheliopathy as a syndecan-1 cut-off level that maximized the sum of sensitivity and specificity for predicting TBI-AC. Results: Inclusion criteria were met in 120 cases, with subjects aged 35.5 ± 12.6 years (88.3% males). TBI-AC was identified in 50 (41.6%) patients, independent of age, gender, and GCS, but there was an association with acidosis (60%; p = 0.01). Following isolated sTBI, we found insignificant changes in soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) levels between patients with isolated TBI and controls, and sTM levels were lower in coagulopathic compared to non-coagulopathic patients. Elevations in plasma syndecan-1 (ng/mL) levels were seen compared to control (31.1(21.5–30.6) vs. 24.8(18.5–30.6); p = 0.08). Syndecan-1(ng/mL) levels were significantly elevated in coagulopathic compared to non-coagulopathic patients (33.7(21.6–109.5) vs. 29.9(19.239.5); p = 0.03). Using ROC analysis (area under the curve = 0.61; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.50 to 0.72), we established a plasma syndecan-1 level cutoff of ≥30.5 ng/mL (sensitivity % = 55.3, specificity % = 52.3), with a significant association with TBI-associated coagulopathy. Conclusion: Subsequent to brain injury, elevated syndecan-1 shedding and endotheliopathy may be associated with early coagulation abnormalities. A syndecan-1 level ≥30.5 ng/mL identified patients with TBI-AC, and may be of importance in guiding management and clinical decision-making. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Albert, V.; Subramanian, A.; Agrawal, D.; Pati, H.P.; Gupta, S.D.; Mukhopadhyay, A.K. Acute Traumatic Endotheliopathy in Isolated Severe Brain Injury and Its Impact on Clinical Outcome. Med. Sci. 2018, 6, 5.
Albert V, Subramanian A, Agrawal D, Pati HP, Gupta SD, Mukhopadhyay AK. Acute Traumatic Endotheliopathy in Isolated Severe Brain Injury and Its Impact on Clinical Outcome. Medical Sciences. 2018; 6(1):5.Chicago/Turabian Style
Albert, Venencia; Subramanian, Arulselvi; Agrawal, Deepak; Pati, Hara P.; Gupta, Siddhartha D.; Mukhopadhyay, Asok K. 2018. "Acute Traumatic Endotheliopathy in Isolated Severe Brain Injury and Its Impact on Clinical Outcome." Med. Sci. 6, no. 1: 5.