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Med. Sci. 2016, 4(2), 9; doi:10.3390/medsci4020009

A Soxhlet Extract of Gongronema latifolium Retains Moderate Blood Glucose Lowering Effect and Produces Structural Recovery in the Pancreas of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

1
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11700 Minden, Penang, Malaysia
2
Cluster of Integrative Medicine, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, 13200 Penang, Malaysia
3
Department of Biochemistry, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, P. M. B. 1115 Calabar, Nigeria
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yu-Jia Chang
Received: 13 March 2016 / Revised: 12 April 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 25 April 2016
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Abstract

Background: Gongronema latifolium Benth. (GL) possesses considerable glucose lowering effects able to be utilized on a large-scale. This paper investigates the effects of a Soxhlet extract on hyperglycemia, Langerhans islets and glucose uptake by abdominal muscles. Methods: Ethanol and a Soxhlet apparatus were used to obtain GL ethanolic Soxhlet extract (GLES). It was then administered to randomly-segregated male Sprague-Dawley, normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats, using oral gavage to evaluate blood glucose levels (BGLs), serum lipid profile, insulin levels and the pancreas post-treatment. Results: GLES significantly (p < 0.05) decreased BGLs of normal rats in glucose tolerance testing at a dose of 2 g/kg b.w. but failed to do so in diabetic rats undergoing acute 7-h treatment. Given twice-daily, 1 g/kg b.w. of GLES moderately controlled diabetic BGLs starting from day 10. After 14 days of treatment, 1 g/kg and 0.5 g/kg b.w. of GLES caused 44% and 50% respective increases in the average area of Langerhans islets compared to DC. Using isolated rat abdominal muscle, GLES was found to be a mild insulin-sensitizer. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of the known glucose-lowering phytosterol, Sitostenone. Conclusion: Despite retaining moderate antidiabetic activity, Soxhlet extraction of Gongronema latifolium probably leads to the destruction of active heat-liable compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: soxhlet extractor; Gongronema latifolium; diabetes mellitus; hyperglycemia; langerhans islets; streptozotocin; sitostenone soxhlet extractor; Gongronema latifolium; diabetes mellitus; hyperglycemia; langerhans islets; streptozotocin; sitostenone
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Hindi, B.; Yusoff, N.A.; Atangwho, I.J.; Ahmad, M.; Asmawi, M.Z.; Yam, M.F. A Soxhlet Extract of Gongronema latifolium Retains Moderate Blood Glucose Lowering Effect and Produces Structural Recovery in the Pancreas of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats. Med. Sci. 2016, 4, 9.

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