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Med. Sci. 2016, 4(2), 10; doi:10.3390/medsci4020010

First Evidence for the Disease-Stage, Cell-Type, and Virus Specificity of microRNAs during Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Infection

1
Westmead Millennium Institute & Westmead Hospital, University of Sydney, Westmead, Sydney, NSW 2145, Australia
2
Research and Development, Australian Red Cross Blood Service, 17 O’Riordan Street, Alexandria, Sydney, NSW 2015, Australia
3
ICPMR, Department of Virology, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, Sydney, NSW 2145, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kenth Gustafsson
Received: 25 February 2016 / Revised: 29 March 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
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Abstract

The potential involvement of host microRNAs (miRNAs) in HIV infection is well documented, and evidence suggests that HIV modulates and also dysregulates host miRNAs involved in maintaining the host innate immune system. Moreover, the dysregulation of host miRNAs by HIV also effectively interferes directly with the host gene expression. In this study, we have simultaneously evaluated the expression of host miRNAs in both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells derived from HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals (viremic and aviremic individuals while receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), therapy-naïve long-term non-progressors (LTNP), and HIV-negative (HIV–) healthy controls. miRNAs were run on Affymetrix V2 chips, and the differential expression between HIV+ and HIV− samples, along with intergroup comparisons, was derived using PARTEK software, using an FDR of 5% and an adjusted p-value < 0.05. The miR-199a-5p was found to be HIV-specific and expressed in all HIV+ groups as opposed to HIV– controls. Moreover, these are the first studies to reveal clearly the highly discriminatory miRNAs at the level of the disease state, cell type, and HIV-specific miRNAs. View Full-Text
Keywords: CD4+ T-cells; CD8+ T-cells; micro-RNA; human immunodeficiency virus; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; non-progression; gene expression CD4+ T-cells; CD8+ T-cells; micro-RNA; human immunodeficiency virus; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; non-progression; gene expression
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fowler, L.; Conceicao, V.; Perera, S.S.; Gupta, P.; Chew, C.B.; Dyer, W.B.; Saksena, N.K. First Evidence for the Disease-Stage, Cell-Type, and Virus Specificity of microRNAs during Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Infection. Med. Sci. 2016, 4, 10.

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