Ground-Based Measurements of the 2014–2015 Holuhraun Volcanic Cloud (Iceland)
AbstractThe 2014–2015 Bárðarbunga fissure eruption at Holuhraun in central Iceland was distinguished by the high emission of gases, in total 9.6 Mt SO2, with almost no tephra. This work collates all ground-based measurements of this extraordinary eruption cloud made under particularly challenging conditions: remote location, optically dense cloud with high SO2 column amounts, low UV intensity, frequent clouds and precipitation, an extensive and hot lava field, developing ramparts, and high-latitude winter conditions. Semi-continuous measurements of SO2 flux with three scanning DOAS instruments were augmented by car traverses along the ring-road and along the lava. The ratios of other gases/SO2 were measured by OP-FTIR, MultiGAS, and filter packs. Ratios of SO2/HCl = 30–110 and SO2/HF = 30–130 show a halogen-poor eruption cloud. Scientists on-site reported extremely minor tephra production during the eruption. OPC and filter packs showed low particle concentrations similar to non-eruption cloud conditions. Three weather radars detected a droplet-rich eruption cloud. Top of eruption cloud heights of 0.3–5.5 km agl were measured with ground- and aircraft-based visual observations, web camera and NicAIR II infrared images, triangulation of scanning DOAS instruments, and the location of SO2 peaks measured by DOAS traverses. Cloud height and emission rate measurements were critical for initializing gas dispersal simulations for hazard forecasting. View Full-Text
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Pfeffer, M.A.; Bergsson, B.; Barsotti, S.; Stefánsdóttir, G.; Galle, B.; Arellano, S.; Conde, V.; Donovan, A.; Ilyinskaya, E.; Burton, M.; Aiuppa, A.; Whitty, R.C.W.; Simmons, I.C.; Arason, Þ.; Jónasdóttir, E.B.; Keller, N.S.; Yeo, R.F.; Arngrímsson, H.; Jóhannsson, Þ.; Butwin, M.K.; Askew, R.A.; Dumont, S.; von Löwis, S.; Ingvarsson, Þ.; La Spina, A.; Thomas, H.; Prata, F.; Grassa, F.; Giudice, G.; Stefánsson, A.; Marzano, F.; Montopoli, M.; Mereu, L. Ground-Based Measurements of the 2014–2015 Holuhraun Volcanic Cloud (Iceland). Geosciences 2018, 8, 29.
Pfeffer MA, Bergsson B, Barsotti S, Stefánsdóttir G, Galle B, Arellano S, Conde V, Donovan A, Ilyinskaya E, Burton M, Aiuppa A, Whitty RCW, Simmons IC, Arason Þ, Jónasdóttir EB, Keller NS, Yeo RF, Arngrímsson H, Jóhannsson Þ, Butwin MK, Askew RA, Dumont S, von Löwis S, Ingvarsson Þ, La Spina A, Thomas H, Prata F, Grassa F, Giudice G, Stefánsson A, Marzano F, Montopoli M, Mereu L. Ground-Based Measurements of the 2014–2015 Holuhraun Volcanic Cloud (Iceland). Geosciences. 2018; 8(1):29.Chicago/Turabian Style
Pfeffer, Melissa A.; Bergsson, Baldur; Barsotti, Sara; Stefánsdóttir, Gerður; Galle, Bo; Arellano, Santiago; Conde, Vladimir; Donovan, Amy; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Burton, Mike; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Whitty, Rachel C.W.; Simmons, Isla C.; Arason, Þórður; Jónasdóttir, Elín B.; Keller, Nicole S.; Yeo, Richard F.; Arngrímsson, Hermann; Jóhannsson, Þorsteinn; Butwin, Mary K.; Askew, Robert A.; Dumont, Stéphanie; von Löwis, Sibylle; Ingvarsson, Þorgils; La Spina, Alessandro; Thomas, Helen; Prata, Fred; Grassa, Fausto; Giudice, Gaetano; Stefánsson, Andri; Marzano, Frank; Montopoli, Mario; Mereu, Luigi. 2018. "Ground-Based Measurements of the 2014–2015 Holuhraun Volcanic Cloud (Iceland)." Geosciences 8, no. 1: 29.
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