Next Article in Journal
Comparison Study to the Use of Geophysical Methods at Archaeological Sites Observed by Various Remote Sensing Techniques in the Czech Republic
Next Article in Special Issue
Nutrients and Heavy Metals Contamination in an Urban Estuary of Northern New Jersey
Previous Article in Journal
Analysis and Processing of Nadir and Stereo VHR Pleiadés Images for 3D Mapping and Planning the Land of Nineveh, Iraqi Kurdistan
Previous Article in Special Issue
Comparison of the Mineral Element Content of Public Drinking Fountains and Bottled Water: A Case Study of Ferrara City
Article Menu
Issue 3 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Geosciences 2017, 7(3), 78; doi:10.3390/geosciences7030078

The Cancer and Non-Cancer Risk of Santiago Island (Cape Verde) Population due to Potential Toxic Elements Exposure from Soils

Geobiotec Research Centre and Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology (CNC), Department of Earth Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3030-790 Coimbra, Portugal
Centre for Mechanical Engineering, Materials and Processes , Department of Earth Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3030-790 Coimbra, Portugal
Geobiotec Research Centre, University of Aveiro, Department of Geosciences, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environmental and Medical Geochemistry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1271 KB, uploaded 20 September 2017]   |  


The hazard index (HI) and carcinogenic risk due to the exposure of some potentially toxic elements to the Santiago Island (Cape Verde) population were calculated, considering soil ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact as exposure pathways. The topsoil of Santiago Island, compared with that of the upper continental crust, is enriched with Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn, Mn, and Cd. Hazard indices (HIs) for these metals and the As exposures to the Santiago Island population were calculated, and these calculations were performed for children and adults. For children, HIs were higher than 1 for Co, Cr, and Mn. Therefore, there is an indication of potential non-carcinogenic risk for children, due to the high Co (HI = 2.995), Cr (HI = 1.329), and Mn (HI = 1.126) values in these soils. For the other elements, in adults, there is no potential non-carcinogenic risk. Cancer risk for As, Cd, Cr, and Ni exposures, in adults and children, was calculated, and the results are mainly lower than the carcinogenic target risk of 1 × 10−6 for As, Cd, and Ni. However, in adults, cancer risk is higher than the carcinogenic target risk for Cr. Regarding As, for children, the fraction due to Riskingestion represents 51.6%, while Riskinhalation represents 48.0% and Riskdermalcontact represents only 0.4% of the total risk. For adults, Riskinhalation represents 81.3%, Riskingestion represents 16.6%, and Riskdermal contact represents 2.1%. These results reflect the higher daily ingestion dose for children and the higher inhalation rate and higher dermal contact surface for adults. For the other elements, the cancer risk due to Cr, Ni, and Cd inhalation is always higher for adults than it is for children, reflecting the higher inhalation rate for adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer risk; risk assessment; volcanic soils; Santiago Island cancer risk; risk assessment; volcanic soils; Santiago Island

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cabral Pinto, M.M.S.; Silva, M.M.V.; Ferreira da Silva, E.A.; Marinho-Reis, A.P. The Cancer and Non-Cancer Risk of Santiago Island (Cape Verde) Population due to Potential Toxic Elements Exposure from Soils. Geosciences 2017, 7, 78.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Geosciences EISSN 2076-3263 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top