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Geosciences 2017, 7(3), 76; doi:10.3390/geosciences7030076

Comparison of the Mineral Element Content of Public Drinking Fountains and Bottled Water: A Case Study of Ferrara City

1
Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta, Italy
2
Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara, Italy
Received: 25 June 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environmental and Medical Geochemistry)
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Abstract

Mineral elements are essential nutrients for humans and play important roles in many human physiological and bio-chemical processes. In this study, a comparison between the levels of mineral elements present in the water of public drinking fountains (PDRF) and in bottled water was carried out. The aim of the study is to assess the effectiveness of PDRF as a mineral supplement, compared to the low-mineral bottled water for out-door non-competitive activity, such as jogging. The city of Ferrara was chosen as the study site. It has ancient walls and on their top there is a gravel road that people use for jogging and walking. Along the road, there are two public drinking fountains that are always used. Water from these fountains was sampled and analysed for major cations and anions using ionic chromatography. Data analyses were compared with the same analyses carried out on bottled water usually used by joggers. Results showed that fountains are a valid substitute of bottled water as they have a moderate content of mineral elements. During outdoor sport activity, the water from fountains is preferable for the reintegration of mineral elements, instead of bottled water that has a very low quantity of minerals. View Full-Text
Keywords: mineral elements; bottled water; public drinking fountains; optimal mineral profile mineral elements; bottled water; public drinking fountains; optimal mineral profile
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Di Giuseppe, D. Comparison of the Mineral Element Content of Public Drinking Fountains and Bottled Water: A Case Study of Ferrara City. Geosciences 2017, 7, 76.

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