Next Article in Journal
Magnitude-Frequency Distribution of Hummocks on Rockslide-Debris Avalanche Deposits and Its Geomorphological Significance
Next Article in Special Issue
The Value of Original Natural Stone in the Context of Architectural Heritage
Previous Article in Journal
Soil Moisture Estimation in South-Eastern New Mexico Using High Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Data
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Geosciences 2016, 6(1), 4; doi:10.3390/geosciences6010004

Black Layers of Decay and Color Patterns on Heritage Limestone as Markers of Environmental Change

1
Instituto de Geociencias IGEO (CSIC, UCM), C/José Antonio Nováis 12, Madrid 28040, Spain
2
Facultad Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/José Antonio Nováis 12, Madrid 28040, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carlos Alves
Received: 4 November 2015 / Revised: 21 December 2015 / Accepted: 28 December 2015 / Published: 7 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geoscience of the Built Environment 2016 Edition)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [17685 KB, uploaded 7 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

Air pollution induces the development of black crusts on the surface of built heritage materials. Black layers on the limestone used on an emblematic Madrilenian building dating from the early twentieth century, mainly built up in the 20 years lapsing between two façade cleaning operations, was studied with POM and SEM-EDS. Particulate matter deposited on surfaces in the same period was analyzed with XRD and IC. Climate change in the environs was also studied and façade coloring patterns were compared. Since black crust and settled dust composition, as well as façade soling intensity, were found to be closely related to the surrounding environment, both are proposed as environment and climate change markers. These are considerations, moreover, that must be addressed when designing conservation strategies. Domestic heating systems and vehicle traffic were identified as the two main sources of pollution throughout the period studied in the target area, where the temperature steadily rose and relative humidity declined. The progressive replacement of coal with gas oil in domestic heating boilers and the proliferation of vehicles with diesel engines have mostly determined the evolution of the pollutants emitted. The color of façade soiling, in turn, has been primarily conditioned by the typology of the particles deposited on the limestone surface, declining humidity and the passage of time. View Full-Text
Keywords: particulate matter; decay; soiling; dust; air pollution; cleaning; monitoring; conservation strategies; built heritage particulate matter; decay; soiling; dust; air pollution; cleaning; monitoring; conservation strategies; built heritage
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Perez-Monserrat, E.M.; Varas-Muriel, M.J.; Alvarez De Buergo, M.; Fort, R. Black Layers of Decay and Color Patterns on Heritage Limestone as Markers of Environmental Change. Geosciences 2016, 6, 4.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Geosciences EISSN 2076-3263 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top