Animals 2014, 4(1), 62-81; doi:10.3390/ani4010062
Article

Characteristics of Loads of Cattle Stopping for Feed, Water and Rest during Long-Distance Transport in Canada

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Received: 11 October 2013; in revised form: 20 February 2014 / Accepted: 20 February 2014 / Published: 5 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long Distance Transport of Animals)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Simple Summary: This study was designed to benchmark the characteristics of loads of cattle stopping for feed, water and rest during long distance transport in Canada. Another objective of this study was to determine how well these loads were following current Canadian regulations for the length of time animals can spend in transit, and how long they must be rested for. The majority of loads stopping for feed water and rest were transporting cattle to feedlots rather than processing plants. All loads were under the 48 hour maximum allowable time in transit defined under the Canadian transport regulations and all loads exceeded the minimum duration of 5 hours required for feed, water and rest.
Abstract: This study is the first comprehensive examination of long-haul cattle being transported across Canada and off-loaded for feed, water and rest. A total of 129 truckloads were observed at one of two commercial rest stations near Thunder Bay, Ontario. Data collected included information regarding the truck driver, the trailer, the trip, the animals and animal handling. The majority of the loads stopping were feeder calves (60.94%) while 21.09% were weaned calves, and the remaining 14.84% were market weight cattle. The truck loads surveyed were in transit for, on average, 28.2 ± 5.0 hours before stopping and cattle were rested for an average of 11.2 ± 2.8 hours. These data suggest that loads stopping at the rest station were adhering to the regulations stated in the Health of Animals Act, which outline a maximum of 48 hours in transit before a mandatory stop of at least 5 hours for feed, water and rest. There was a large amount of variability around how well recommendations, such as stocking density were followed. Further research is required to assess how well cattle are coping with long-distance transport under current regulations and industry practices.
Keywords: long-distance transport; transportation; cattle; welfare; rest
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MDPI and ACS Style

Flint, H.E.; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K.S.; Bateman, K.G.; Haley, D.B. Characteristics of Loads of Cattle Stopping for Feed, Water and Rest during Long-Distance Transport in Canada. Animals 2014, 4, 62-81.

AMA Style

Flint HE, Schwartzkopf-Genswein KS, Bateman KG, Haley DB. Characteristics of Loads of Cattle Stopping for Feed, Water and Rest during Long-Distance Transport in Canada. Animals. 2014; 4(1):62-81.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Flint, Hannah E.; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Karen S.; Bateman, Ken G.; Haley, Derek B. 2014. "Characteristics of Loads of Cattle Stopping for Feed, Water and Rest during Long-Distance Transport in Canada." Animals 4, no. 1: 62-81.

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