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Microorganisms 2016, 4(4), 46; doi:10.3390/microorganisms4040046

Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

1
Phytopathology, Graduate College, Carr. Mexico-Texcoco km 36.5, Montecillo, Texcoco 56230, Mexico
2
Departamento de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), University Avenue No. 3000, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico City 04510, Mexico
3
Unidad de Hemato Oncología e Investigación, Hospital Infantil de México “Federico Gómez”/División de Investigación, Facultad de Medicina UNAM. Dr. Márquez 162, Col. De los Doctores, Cd. de Mexico 06720, Mexico
4
Soil Science, Autonomous University of Chapingo, Km 38.5 Carretera Mexico-Texcoco, Chapingo 56230, Mexico
5
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Comi
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 December 2016 / Published: 10 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbes and Food)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1241 KB, uploaded 10 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination. View Full-Text
Keywords: cactus; Opuntia-ficus indica; nopal juice; Citrobacter; E. coli; total coliforms; Salmonella cactus; Opuntia-ficus indica; nopal juice; Citrobacter; E. coli; total coliforms; Salmonella
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hernández-Anguiano, A.M.; Landa-Salgado, P.; Eslava-Campos, C.A.; Vargas-Hernández, M.; Patel, J. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice. Microorganisms 2016, 4, 46.

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