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Microorganisms 2016, 4(4), 47; doi:10.3390/microorganisms4040047

Immunoregulation in Fungal Diseases

1
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
2
Pulmonary Section, Medical Service, VA Ann Arbor Health System, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
3
Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Floyd L. Wormley
Received: 4 November 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 10 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pathogenesis and Immune Defense)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1131 KB, uploaded 10 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

This review addresses specific regulatory mechanisms involved in the host immune response to fungal organisms. We focus on key cells and regulatory pathways involved in these responses, including a brief overview of their broader function preceding a discussion of their specific relevance to fungal disease. Important cell types discussed include dendritic cells and regulatory T cells, with a focus on specific studies relating to their effects on immune responses to fungi. We highlight the interleukin-10, programmed cell death 1, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 signaling pathways and emphasize interrelationships between these pathways and the regulatory functions of dendritic cells and regulatory T cells. Throughout our discussion, we identify selected studies best illustrating the role of these cells and pathways in response to specific fungal pathogens to provide a contextual understanding of the tightly-controlled network of regulatory mechanisms critical to determining the outcome of exposure to fungal pathogens. Lastly, we discuss two unique phenomena relating to immunoregulation, protective tolerance and immune reactivation inflammatory syndrome. These two clinically-relevant conditions provide perspective as to the range of immunoregulatory mechanisms active in response to fungi. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunoregulation; fungi; dendritic cell (DC); regulatory T cell (Treg cell); programmed cell death 1 (PD-1); cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4); interleukin-10 (IL-10); protective tolerance; immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) immunoregulation; fungi; dendritic cell (DC); regulatory T cell (Treg cell); programmed cell death 1 (PD-1); cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4); interleukin-10 (IL-10); protective tolerance; immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Roussey, J.A.; Olszewski, M.A.; Osterholzer, J.J. Immunoregulation in Fungal Diseases. Microorganisms 2016, 4, 47.

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