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Microorganisms 2016, 4(3), 31;

Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements and Non-Coding RNAs in the Neisseria Species

School of Life Sciences, Pharmacy, and Chemistry, Kingston University, Penrhyn Road, Kingston upon Thames, KT1 2EE, UK
Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
School of Computing and Information Systems, Kingston University, Penrhyn Road, Kingston upon Thames, KT1 2EE, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David W. Ussery
Received: 20 July 2016 / Revised: 15 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 25 August 2016
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Neisseria gonorrhoeae is capable of causing gonorrhoea and more complex diseases in the human host. Neisseria meningitidis is a closely related pathogen that shares many of the same genomic features and virulence factors, but causes the life threatening diseases meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia. The importance of non-coding RNAs in gene regulation has become increasingly evident having been demonstrated to be involved in regulons responsible for iron acquisition, antigenic variation, and virulence. Neisseria spp. contain an IS-like element, the Correia Repeat Enclosed Element, which has been predicted to be mobile within the genomes or to have been in the past. This repeat, present in over 100 copies in the genome, has the ability to alter gene expression and regulation in several ways. We reveal here that Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements tend to be near non-coding RNAs in the Neisseria spp., especially N. gonorrhoeae. These results suggest that Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements may have disrupted ancestral regulatory networks not just through their influence on regulatory proteins but also for non-coding RNAs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Neisseria meningitidis; CREE; ncRNA Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Neisseria meningitidis; CREE; ncRNA

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Roberts, S.B.; Spencer-Smith, R.; Shah, M.; Nebel, J.-C.; Cook, R.T.; Snyder, L.A.S. Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements and Non-Coding RNAs in the Neisseria Species. Microorganisms 2016, 4, 31.

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