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Microorganisms 2015, 3(4), 707-724; doi:10.3390/microorganisms3040707

Sulfur Oxygenase Reductase (Sor) in the Moderately Thermoacidophilic Leaching Bacteria: Studies in Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans and Acidithiobacillus caldus

1
Biofilm Centre, Aquatische Biotechnologie, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Universitätstraße 5, Essen, 45141, Germany
2
Laboratorio de Tecnología de Membranas, Biotecnología y Medio Ambiente, Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Católica del Norte, Antofagasta 1270709, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ricardo Amils and Elena González Toril
Received: 29 June 2015 / Revised: 1 October 2015 / Accepted: 10 October 2015 / Published: 21 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extremophiles)
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Abstract

The sulfur oxygenase reductase (Sor) catalyzes the oxygen dependent disproportionation of elemental sulfur, producing sulfite, thiosulfate and sulfide. Being considered an “archaeal like” enzyme, it is also encoded in the genomes of some acidophilic leaching bacteria such as Acidithiobacillus caldus, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans, among others. We measured Sor activity in crude extracts from Sb. thermosulfidooxidans DSM 9293T. The optimum temperature for its oxygenase activity was achieved at 75 °C, confirming the “thermophilic” nature of this enzyme. Additionally, a search for genes probably involved in sulfur metabolism in the genome sequence of Sb. thermosulfidooxidans DSM 9293T was done. Interestingly, no sox genes were found. Two sor genes, a complete heterodisulfidereductase (hdr) gene cluster, three tetrathionate hydrolase (tth) genes, three sulfide quinonereductase (sqr), as well as the doxD component of a thiosulfate quinonereductase (tqo) were found. Seven At. caldus strains were tested for Sor activity, which was not detected in any of them. We provide evidence that an earlier reported Sor activity from At. caldus S1 and S2 strains most likely was due to the presence of a Sulfobacillus contaminant. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans; Acidithiobacillus caldus; sulfur metabolism; sulfur oxygenase reductase; genome Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans; Acidithiobacillus caldus; sulfur metabolism; sulfur oxygenase reductase; genome
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Janosch, C.; Remonsellez, F.; Sand, W.; Vera, M. Sulfur Oxygenase Reductase (Sor) in the Moderately Thermoacidophilic Leaching Bacteria: Studies in Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans and Acidithiobacillus caldus. Microorganisms 2015, 3, 707-724.

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