Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Microorganisms 2013, 1(1), 162-174; doi:10.3390/microorganisms1010162
Review

Molecular Quantification and Genetic Diversity of Toxigenic Fusarium Species in Northern Europe as Compared to Those in Southern Europe

1,* , 2
, 2
, 3
, 4
 and 4
Received: 27 September 2013; in revised form: 5 November 2013 / Accepted: 25 November 2013 / Published: 3 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and New Perspectives in Microbial Research)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [500 KB, uploaded 3 December 2013]
Abstract: Fusarium species produce important mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and T-2/HT-2-toxins in cereals. The highest DON and T-2/HT-2 toxin levels in northern Europe have been found in oats. About 12%–24% of Finnish oat samples in 2012 contained >1.75 mg·kg−1 of DON, which belongs to type B trichothecenes. Fusarium graminearum is the most important DON producer in northern Europe and Asia and it has been displacing the closely related F. culmorum in northern Europe. The 3ADON chemotype of F. graminearum is dominant in most northern areas, while the 15ADON chemotype of F. graminearum is predominating in Central and southern Europe. We suggest that the northern population of F. graminearum may be more specialized to oats than the southern population. Only low levels of F. culmorum DNA were found in a few oat samples and no correlation was found between F. culmorum DNA and DON levels. DNA levels of F. graminearum were in all cases in agreement with DON levels in 2011 and 2012, when DON was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). When the RIDA® QUICK SCAN kit results (DON) were compared to DNA levels of F. graminearum, the variation was much higher. The homogenization of the oats flour by grinding oats with 1 mm sieve seems to be connected to this variation. There was a significant correlation between the combined T-2 and HT-2 and the combined DNA levels of F. langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides in Finland in 2010–2012.
Keywords: Fusarium; mycotoxins; diversity; Europe; qPCR Fusarium; mycotoxins; diversity; Europe; qPCR
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Yli-Mattila, T.; Rämö, S.; Hietaniemi, V.; Hussien, T.; Carlobos-Lopez, A.L.; Cumagun, C.J.R. Molecular Quantification and Genetic Diversity of Toxigenic Fusarium Species in Northern Europe as Compared to Those in Southern Europe. Microorganisms 2013, 1, 162-174.

AMA Style

Yli-Mattila T, Rämö S, Hietaniemi V, Hussien T, Carlobos-Lopez AL, Cumagun CJR. Molecular Quantification and Genetic Diversity of Toxigenic Fusarium Species in Northern Europe as Compared to Those in Southern Europe. Microorganisms. 2013; 1(1):162-174.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Rämö, Sari; Hietaniemi, Veli; Hussien, Taha; Carlobos-Lopez, Ana L.; Cumagun, Christian J.R. 2013. "Molecular Quantification and Genetic Diversity of Toxigenic Fusarium Species in Northern Europe as Compared to Those in Southern Europe." Microorganisms 1, no. 1: 162-174.

Microorganisms EISSN 2076-2607 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert