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Pathogens 2018, 7(1), 23; doi:10.3390/pathogens7010023

Species C Rotaviruses in Children with Diarrhea in India, 2010–2013: A Potentially Neglected Cause of Acute Gastroenteritis

Division of Biological Standardization, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243122, India
Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College, Haldwani, Nainital, Uttarakhand 263 139, India
Department of Pediatrics, Government Medical College, Haldwani, Nainital, Uttarakhand 263 139, India
Department of Biomedical Sciences, One Health Center for Zoonoses and Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 334, Basseterre, St. Kitts, West Indies
Food Animal Health Research Program, CFAES, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691, USA
Laboratoire de Biosécurité et de Recherche, Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Med V de Rabat; 110 000 Morocco
Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243 122, India
Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Chuo-Ku, Sapporo 060-8556, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 November 2017 / Revised: 10 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 17 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rotavirus Epidemiology: Host, Climate and Vaccine Influences)
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All over the world, children and adults are severely affected by acute gastroenteritis, caused by one of the emerging enteric pathogens, rotavirus C (RVC). At present, no extensive surveillance program is running for RVC in India, and its prevalence is largely unknown except cases of local outbreaks. Here, we intended to detect the presence of RVC in diarrheic children visiting or admitted to hospitals in Haldwani (state of Uttarakhand, India), a city located in the foothills of the Himalayas. During 2010–2013, we screened 119 samples for RVC by an RVC VP6 gene-specific RT-PCR. Of these, 38 (31.93%) were found positive, which is higher than the incidence rates reported so far from India. The phylogenetic analysis of the derived nucleotide sequences from one of the human RVC (HuRVC) isolates, designated as HuRVC/H28/2013/India, showed that the study isolate belongs to genotype I2, P2 and E2 for RVC structural genes 6 and 4 (VP6, and VP4) and non-structural gene 4 (NSP4), respectively. Furthermore, the VP6 gene of HuRVC/H28/2013/India shows the highest similarity to a recently-reported human-like porcine RVC (PoRVC/ASM140/2013/India, KT932963) from India suggesting zoonotic transmission. We also report a full-length NSP4 gene sequence of human RVC from India. Under the One-health platforms there is a need to launch combined human and animal RVC surveillance programs for a better understanding of the epidemiology of RVC infections and for implementing control strategies.Reoviridae, possess 11 double-stranded segments of RNA that encode six structural viral proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3, VP4, VP6, VP7) and five/six non-structural proteins (NSP1–NSP5/6) [7]. Based on the antigenic properties of the major inner capsid protein (VP6), RVs are subdivided into eight well-characterized species (A–H) and two putative species viz. I and J [8–10]. Humans and other mammalian species are affected by species A, B, C and H rotaviruses and birds by species D, F and G, and species E has been reported exclusively in pigs [7,8,11–17]. The newly-proposed species I is reported in dogs [18] and cats [19], whereas species J is found in bats [10]. View Full-Text
Keywords: rotavirus C; acute gastroenteritis; sequence analysis; phylogenetic analysis; VP6; VP4; NSP4 genes; India rotavirus C; acute gastroenteritis; sequence analysis; phylogenetic analysis; VP6; VP4; NSP4 genes; India

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Bhat, S.; Kattoor, J.J.; Malik, Y.S.; Sircar, S.; Deol, P.; Rawat, V.; Rakholia, R.; Ghosh, S.; Vlasova, A.N.; Nadia, T.; Dhama, K.; Kobayashi, N. Species C Rotaviruses in Children with Diarrhea in India, 2010–2013: A Potentially Neglected Cause of Acute Gastroenteritis. Pathogens 2018, 7, 23.

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