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Pathogens 2018, 7(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7010002

Lessons Learned from Protective Immune Responses to Optimize Vaccines against Cryptosporidiosis

1
National Reference Centre for Parasitology, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, QC H4A 3J1, Canada
2
Department of Medicine, Division of Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC H4A 3J1, Canada
3
Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Parasitology, McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC H9X 3V9, Canada
4
Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC H4A 3J1, Canada
These authors have contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 16 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 24 December 2017
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Abstract

In developing countries, cryptosporidiosis causes moderate-to-severe diarrhea and kills thousands of infants and toddlers annually. Drinking and recreational water contaminated with Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts has led to waterborne outbreaks in developed countries. A competent immune system is necessary to clear this parasitic infection. A better understanding of the immune responses required to prevent or limit infection by this protozoan parasite is the cornerstone of development of an effective vaccine. In this light, lessons learned from previously developed vaccines against Cryptosporidium spp. are at the foundation for development of better next-generation vaccines. In this review, we summarize the immune responses elicited by naturally and experimentally-induced Cryptosporidium spp. infection and by several experimental vaccines in various animal models. Our aim is to increase awareness about the immune responses that underlie protection against cryptosporidiosis and to encourage promotion of these immune responses as a key strategy for vaccine development. Innate and mucosal immunity will be addressed as well as adaptive immunity, with an emphasis on the balance between TH1/TH2 immune responses. Development of more effective vaccines against cryptosporidiosis is needed to prevent Cryptosporidium spp.-related deaths in infants and toddlers in developing countries. View Full-Text
Keywords: cryptosporidiosis; Cryptosporidium; immune response; infection; vaccine; innate immunity; mucosal immunity; adaptive immunity; TH1 immune response; TH2 immune response cryptosporidiosis; Cryptosporidium; immune response; infection; vaccine; innate immunity; mucosal immunity; adaptive immunity; TH1 immune response; TH2 immune response
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Lemieux, M.W.; Sonzogni-Desautels, K.; Ndao, M. Lessons Learned from Protective Immune Responses to Optimize Vaccines against Cryptosporidiosis. Pathogens 2018, 7, 2.

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