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Pathogens 2015, 4(1), 22-33; doi:10.3390/pathogens4010022

Aetiology of Acute Lower Respiratory Infections among Children Under Five Years in Accra, Ghana

Department of Microbiology, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
Department of Child Health, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana
Department of Pathology, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana
Department of Electron Microscopy and Histopathology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lawrence S. Young
Received: 16 July 2014 / Revised: 22 December 2014 / Accepted: 14 January 2015 / Published: 26 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Respiratory Pathogens)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [339 KB, uploaded 26 January 2015]   |  


The study aimed to investigate the aetiological agents and clinical presentations associated with acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) among children under five years old at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana. This was a cross-sectional study carried from February to December 2001. Nasopharyngeal aspirates and venous blood specimens obtained from 108 children with features suggestive of ALRI, were cultured and the isolated bacterial organisms were identified biochemically. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were also tested for Respiratory Syncitial Virus (RSV) antigen using a commercial kit (Becton Dickinson Directigen RSV test kit). A multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was also used to detect and characterize RSV using extracted RNA. Socio-demographic and clinical data were also obtained from the study subjects. Bronchopneumonia (55.5%), bronchiolitis (25%), lobar pneumonia (10.2), non-specific ALRI (4.6%), TB, bronchitis and respiratory distress (0.67%) were diagnosed. The prevalence of septicaemia was 10% and bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and enteric bacteria, including Salmonella spp., Enterobacter spp and Klebsiella spp, were isolated. Out of the 108 cases, 18% tested positive for RSV, with two cases having RSV as the only aetiological pathogen detected. The subtyping analysis of RSV strains by a multiplex RT-PCR showed that subgroups A and B circulated in the season of analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: acute respiratory infections; Respiratory Syncitial Virus; Staphylococcus aureus acute respiratory infections; Respiratory Syncitial Virus; Staphylococcus aureus

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Adiku, T.K.; Asmah, R.H.; Rodrigues, O.; Goka, B.; Obodai, E.; Adjei, A.A.; Donkor, E.S.; Armah, G. Aetiology of Acute Lower Respiratory Infections among Children Under Five Years in Accra, Ghana. Pathogens 2015, 4, 22-33.

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