Alternatives to Antibiotics in Animal Agriculture: An Ecoimmunological View
AbstractEcological immunology (or ecoimmunology) is a new discipline in animal health and immunology that extends immunologists’ views into a natural context where animals and humans have co-evolved. Antibiotic resistance and tolerance (ART) in bacteria are manifested in antibiosis-surviving subsets of resisters and persisters. ART has emerged though natural evolutionary consequences enriched by human nosocomial and agricultural practices, in particular, wide use of antibiotics that overwhelms other ecological and immunological interactions. Most previous reviews of antibiotic resistance focus on resisters but overlook persisters, although both are fundamental to bacteria survival through antibiosis. Here, we discuss resisters and persisters together to contrast the distinct ecological responses of persisters during antibiotic stress and propose different regimens to eradicate persisters. Our intention is not only to provide an ecoimmunological interpretation, but also to use an ecoimmunological system to categorize available alternatives and promote the discovery of prospective approaches to relieve ART problems within the general scope of improving animal health. Thus, we will categorize available alternatives to antibiotics and envision applications of ecoimmunological tenets to promote related studies in animal production. View Full-Text
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Sang, Y.; Blecha, F. Alternatives to Antibiotics in Animal Agriculture: An Ecoimmunological View. Pathogens 2015, 4, 1-19.
Sang Y, Blecha F. Alternatives to Antibiotics in Animal Agriculture: An Ecoimmunological View. Pathogens. 2015; 4(1):1-19.Chicago/Turabian Style
Sang, Yongming; Blecha, Frank. 2015. "Alternatives to Antibiotics in Animal Agriculture: An Ecoimmunological View." Pathogens 4, no. 1: 1-19.