Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Pathogens 2014, 3(1), 164-184; doi:10.3390/pathogens3010164
Review

Genomic and Global Approaches to Unravelling How Hypermutable Sequences Influence Bacterial Pathogenesis

 and *
Received: 4 December 2013; in revised form: 6 January 2014 / Accepted: 13 February 2014 / Published: 25 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Pathogenomics: From Technology to Application)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [889 KB, uploaded 25 February 2014]
Abstract: Rapid adaptation to fluctuations in the host milieu contributes to the host persistence and virulence of bacterial pathogens. Adaptation is frequently mediated by hypermutable sequences in bacterial pathogens. Early bacterial genomic studies identified the multiplicity and virulence-associated functions of these hypermutable sequences. Thus, simple sequence repeat tracts (SSRs) and site-specific recombination were found to control capsular type, lipopolysaccharide structure, pilin diversity and the expression of outer membrane proteins. We review how the population diversity inherent in the SSR-mediated mechanism of localised hypermutation is being unlocked by the investigation of whole genome sequences of disease isolates, analysis of clinical samples and use of model systems. A contrast is presented between the problematical nature of analysing simple sequence repeats in next generation sequencing data and in simpler, pragmatic PCR-based approaches. Specific examples are presented of the potential relevance of this localized hypermutation to meningococcal pathogenesis. This leads us to speculate on the future prospects for unravelling how hypermutable mechanisms may contribute to the transmission, spread and persistence of bacterial pathogens.
Keywords: phase variation; simple sequence repeat; phasevariome; phasotype; localised hypermutation; bacterial genome phase variation; simple sequence repeat; phasevariome; phasotype; localised hypermutation; bacterial genome
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Bidmos, F.A.; Bayliss, C.D. Genomic and Global Approaches to Unravelling How Hypermutable Sequences Influence Bacterial Pathogenesis. Pathogens 2014, 3, 164-184.

AMA Style

Bidmos FA, Bayliss CD. Genomic and Global Approaches to Unravelling How Hypermutable Sequences Influence Bacterial Pathogenesis. Pathogens. 2014; 3(1):164-184.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bidmos, Fadil A.; Bayliss, Christopher D. 2014. "Genomic and Global Approaches to Unravelling How Hypermutable Sequences Influence Bacterial Pathogenesis." Pathogens 3, no. 1: 164-184.

Pathogens EISSN 2076-0817 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert