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Pathogens 2014, 3(1), 211-237; doi:10.3390/pathogens3010211

Genome Sequencing of Xanthomonas vasicola Pathovar vasculorum Reveals Variation in Plasmids and Genes Encoding Lipopolysaccharide Synthesis, Type-IV Pilus and Type-III Secretion Effectors

Biosciences, University of Exeter, Geoffrey Pope Building, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QD, UK
National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI), Kampala 7084, Uganda
The Food and Environment Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 December 2013 / Revised: 10 February 2014 / Accepted: 3 March 2014 / Published: 18 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Pathogenomics: From Technology to Application)
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Xanthomonas vasicola pathovar vasculorum (Xvv) is the bacterial agent causing gumming disease in sugarcane. Here, we compare complete genome sequences for five isolates of Xvv originating from sugarcane and one from maize. This identified two distinct types of lipopolysaccharide synthesis gene clusters among Xvv isolates: one is similar to that of Xanthomonas axonopodis pathovar citri (Xac) and is probably the ancestral type, while the other is similar to those of the sugarcane-inhabiting species, Xanthomonas sacchari. Four of six Xvv isolates harboured sequences similar to the Xac plasmid, pXAC47, and showed a distinct Type-IV pilus (T4P) sequence type, whereas the T4P locus of the other two isolates resembled that of the closely related banana pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum (Xcm). The Xvv isolate from maize has lost a gene encoding a homologue of the virulence effector, xopAF, which was present in all five of the sugarcane isolates, while xopL contained a premature stop codon in four out of six isolates. These findings shed new light on evolutionary events since the divergence of Xvv and Xcm, as well as further elucidating the relationships between the two closely related pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: gumming disease; sugarcane; banana Xanthomonas wilt gumming disease; sugarcane; banana Xanthomonas wilt

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Wasukira, A.; Coulter, M.; Al-Sowayeh, N.; Thwaites, R.; Paszkiewicz, K.; Kubiriba, J.; Smith, J.; Grant, M.; Studholme, D.J. Genome Sequencing of Xanthomonas vasicola Pathovar vasculorum Reveals Variation in Plasmids and Genes Encoding Lipopolysaccharide Synthesis, Type-IV Pilus and Type-III Secretion Effectors. Pathogens 2014, 3, 211-237.

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