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Soc. Sci., Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2014), Pages 193-307

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Stanley Milgram’s Obedience to Authority “Relationship” Condition: Some Methodological and Theoretical Implications
Soc. Sci. 2014, 3(2), 194-214; doi:10.3390/socsci3020194
Received: 28 January 2014 / Revised: 31 March 2014 / Accepted: 9 April 2014 / Published: 15 April 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In May 1962, social psychologist, Stanley Milgram, ran what was arguably the most controversial variation of his Obedience to Authority (OTA) experiments: the Relationship Condition (RC). In the RC, participants were required to bring a friend, with one becoming the teacher and the
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In May 1962, social psychologist, Stanley Milgram, ran what was arguably the most controversial variation of his Obedience to Authority (OTA) experiments: the Relationship Condition (RC). In the RC, participants were required to bring a friend, with one becoming the teacher and the other the learner. The learners were covertly informed that the experiment was actually exploring whether their friend would obey an experimenter’s orders to hurt them. Learners were quickly trained in how to react to the impending “shocks”. Only 15 percent of teachers completed the RC. In an article published in 1965, Milgram discussed most of the variations on his baseline experiment, but only named the RC in passing, promising a more detailed account in his forthcoming book. However, his 1974 book failed to mention the RC and it remained unpublished until François Rochat and Andre Modigliani discovered it in Milgram’s personal archive in 1997 at Yale University. Their overview of the RC’s procedure and results left a number of questions unanswered. For example, what were the etiological origins of the RC? Why did Milgram decide against publishing this experiment? And does the RC have any significant methodological or theoretical implications on the Obedience studies discourse? Based on documents obtained from Milgram’s personal archive, the aim of this article is to shed new light on these questions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Personal Relationships)
Open AccessArticle Sexual Motivations and Ideals Distinguish Sexual Identities within the Self-Concept: A Multidimensional Scaling Analysis
Soc. Sci. 2014, 3(2), 215-226; doi:10.3390/socsci3020215
Received: 2 December 2013 / Revised: 5 April 2014 / Accepted: 11 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
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Abstract
Many studies explore when and how young people make sexual choices but few empirical investigations link their sexual motivations with their inner conceptions about their sexual identities. We used multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis to connect young adult participants’ (N = 128) self-descriptions of
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Many studies explore when and how young people make sexual choices but few empirical investigations link their sexual motivations with their inner conceptions about their sexual identities. We used multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis to connect young adult participants’ (N = 128) self-descriptions of twelve identities to their sexual motivations and ideals. Identities clustered along two semantically distinct dimensions: Dimension 1 was anchored by family identities on one side and non-family identities on the other; Dimension 2 was anchored on one side by friend/romantic relationships and achievement-based social identities on the other. Those who cited intimacy (e.g., sex as an expression of love) and enhancement (e.g., gratification; to feel good) sexual motivations were more likely to describe their sexual identities and gender identities as distinct from other identities, especially for women. Idealizing physically passionate relationships was positively linked to a higher distinction between sexual and non-sexual identities, and between gender and personal identities and family identities. The mental structuring of identities may inform sexual relationship motives, ideals, and expectations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Personal Relationships)
Open AccessArticle Adolescent Physical Fighting in Ghana, Their Demographic and Social Characteristics
Soc. Sci. 2014, 3(2), 227-241; doi:10.3390/socsci3020227
Received: 30 October 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2014 / Accepted: 29 April 2014 / Published: 5 May 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (107 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Physical fighting is an important behavioral concern of public health importance among adolescents worldwide. The present study examines the patterns and correlates of physical fighting among a school-based population in a low-income country setting. Data on 6235 adolescents aged 11–16 years were derived
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Physical fighting is an important behavioral concern of public health importance among adolescents worldwide. The present study examines the patterns and correlates of physical fighting among a school-based population in a low-income country setting. Data on 6235 adolescents aged 11–16 years were derived from the Republic of Ghana contributions to the Global School-based Health Survey. Three thresholds of participation in a physical fight during a 12-month recall period were compared against several independent sociodemographic variables. Bivariate analyses were used to screen for statistically significant associations and multinomial logistic regression was used to examine significant relationships while adjusting for covariates. Within the recall period, 32% of adolescents had reported being involved in two or more physical fights. Those involved in a physical fight during three or more days during the recall period were more likely to have been bullied (relative risk ratios (RRR) = 1.86; 99% confidence intervals (CI): 1.38–2.52), have had a troubled experience with alcohol (RRR = 2.202; CI = 1.55–2.64), and miss days of school (RRR = 2.02; CI = 1.39–2.92). When adjusted only for age and sex, having understanding parents was protective (RRR = 0.64; CI = 0.53–0.78) as was having a positive school environment (RRR = 0.73; CI = 0.55–0.97). Our findings suggest that school-based programming which simultaneously targets multiple risk behaviors and conflict resolution may be helpful in interventions to reduce rates of physical fighting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Social Sciences)
Open AccessArticle Gender Socialization and Identity Theory
Soc. Sci. 2014, 3(2), 242-263; doi:10.3390/socsci3020242
Received: 25 March 2014 / Revised: 18 April 2014 / Accepted: 8 May 2014 / Published: 12 May 2014
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Abstract
Gender socialization is examined through a social psychological lens by applying identity theory and identity control theory. Current research from the fields of family and sociological social psychology are surveyed to provide a better conception of how the family operates as agents of
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Gender socialization is examined through a social psychological lens by applying identity theory and identity control theory. Current research from the fields of family and sociological social psychology are surveyed to provide a better conception of how the family operates as agents of socialization, and how identities that are cultivated and fostered in youth provide meaning throughout the life course and maintain the social order. The application of identity theory shows how gender is a diffuse status characteristic, which is salient in person, role, and social (group) identities, and also across social situations. Identity control theory is applied to show how emotions operate within an internal control system to stabilize gendered identities and perpetuate the social structure. Both theories are specifically applied to understand socialization dynamics that exist for children and families. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Comparison of Tablet-Based and Paper-Based Survey Data Collection in Conservation Projects
Soc. Sci. 2014, 3(2), 264-271; doi:10.3390/socsci3020264
Received: 9 March 2014 / Revised: 9 May 2014 / Accepted: 19 May 2014 / Published: 21 May 2014
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Abstract
There is growing use of household surveys by conservation organizations as they seek to measure the social impacts of conservation initiatives, especially in developing countries. Several recent health-sector studies suggest that computer-aided personal interviewing may be a cheaper and faster alternative to the
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There is growing use of household surveys by conservation organizations as they seek to measure the social impacts of conservation initiatives, especially in developing countries. Several recent health-sector studies suggest that computer-aided personal interviewing may be a cheaper and faster alternative to the traditional paper-based interviewing. Here, a comparison of The Nature Conservancy-funded tablet computer-based and paper-based household surveys is presented. Because the tablet and paper surveys were not identical except for the data collection tool, the results are suggestive. In the comparison, the cost per completed interview for the tablet-based survey was 74% less than the paper-based survey average, and the average time per interview question for the tablet-based survey was 46% less than the paper-based survey average. The cost saving came primarily from less need for data cleaning and lower enumerator fees. The time saving came primarily from faster data entry. The results suggest that there may be substantial savings in costs and time when using tablets rather than paper for survey data collection in a developing country. Full article
Open AccessArticle Governing Through Resilience? Exploring Flood Protection in Dresden, Germany
Soc. Sci. 2014, 3(2), 272-287; doi:10.3390/socsci3020272
Received: 20 December 2013 / Revised: 5 May 2014 / Accepted: 16 May 2014 / Published: 4 June 2014
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Abstract
The paper argues for a governmentality perspective on risk-management politics and resilience-related governance. This perspective pays ample attention to conflicts and discursive ‘battles’ in which different truths and normative assessments, including specific rationalities, subjectivities and technologies of governing compete against. Up to now,
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The paper argues for a governmentality perspective on risk-management politics and resilience-related governance. This perspective pays ample attention to conflicts and discursive ‘battles’ in which different truths and normative assessments, including specific rationalities, subjectivities and technologies of governing compete against. Up to now, the literature on governmentality and resilience has mainly been based on empirical research in the UK. This research highlights the growing importance of neoliberal forms of governing, including a shift in governing strategies towards activating and responsibilizing the public. This is to some extent in contrast to observations about dealing with flood risk on the river Weisseritz in Dresden. The paper reflects on possible avenues for further conceptual and empirical research on ‘governing through resilience’ in the context of flood protection in Germany. It is based on a brief conceptualization of ‘governmentality’ as introduced by Michel Foucault, a literature review, and selected observations from a case study on flood protection for the river Weisseritz in Dresden. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructing Resilience, Negotiating Vulnerability)
Open AccessArticle Has Austerity Succeeded in Ameliorating the Economic Climate? The Cases of Ireland, Cyprus and Greece
Soc. Sci. 2014, 3(2), 288-307; doi:10.3390/socsci3020288
Received: 11 February 2014 / Revised: 9 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 17 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1961 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Great Recession that began in 2008 hit the economy of the European Union extremely hard. The year 2009 brought decline to the majority of the member states, inducing a desperate crisis management process. The few common EU-level crisis management measures that were
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The Great Recession that began in 2008 hit the economy of the European Union extremely hard. The year 2009 brought decline to the majority of the member states, inducing a desperate crisis management process. The few common EU-level crisis management measures that were implemented have brought about little success due to the modest volume of the common budget and the inertia of decision making attempting to harmonize often contradicting interests. As there was no credible crisis management at the EU level, most member states introduced their own set of measures. The efficiency of these was influenced by the economic performance of primary trading and investing partners, and by the volatility of the bond markets. In terms of economic performance, member states of the EU followed various paths and experienced various levels of recession in 2009, then various levels of upswing in 2010–2011, only to be hit by a second wave of recession of various extents after 2011. Although many member states took their own measures, general tendencies in crisis management can be defined. At first, the restoration of the functioning of the markets was targeted by generating additional demand through fiscal stimulus, but was then gradually replaced by imperative fiscal consolidation and austerity measures. The effectiveness of austerity programs is questionable: while the bond markets’ volatility called for the correction of fiscal balances, tax hikes and governmental spending cuts tendentiously pushed back economic performance and postponed recovery, making economic growth possible only by increasing public debts. In this study, I present arguments in favour of the view that, in the current economic climate of the EU, prosperity could not be restored exclusively by austerity. Accordingly, I present case studies of the three member states with the largest increases in public debts: Ireland, Cyprus and Greece. My aim is to assess the efficiency of these member states’ crisis management procedures: whether state interventions financed by public debt could result in economic recovery. I also argue that, given the current economic situation, the recovery in these member states in times of crisis is not foreseen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Eurozone Crisis: A Multidisciplinary Perspective)

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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Bouvet F., et al., Debt Contagion in Europe: A Panel-Vector Autoregressive (VAR) Analysis. Soc. Sci. 2013, 2, 318–340
Soc. Sci. 2014, 3(2), 193; doi:10.3390/socsci3020193
Received: 27 March 2014 / Accepted: 27 March 2014 / Published: 27 March 2014
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Abstract It has come to our attention that due to an error in producing the PDF version of the paper [1], doi:10.3390/socsci2040318, website: http://www.mdpi.com/2076-0760/2/4/318, some of the figures are displayed incorrectly. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Eurozone Crisis: A Multidisciplinary Perspective)

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