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Buildings 2015, 5(4), 1131-1155; doi:10.3390/buildings5041131

Life Cycle Assessment of Energy and CO2 Emissions for Residential Buildings in Jakarta and Bandung, Indonesia

1
Department of Education for Architecture Engineering, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (UPI), Bandung, Setiabudhi No. 207, Bandung 40154, Indonesia
2
Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation (IDEC), Hiroshima University, 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8529, Japan
3
MI Consulting Corporation, AIM Bldg., 3-8-1 Asano, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka 802-0001, Japan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tri Harso Karyono
Received: 23 June 2015 / Revised: 14 September 2015 / Accepted: 17 September 2015 / Published: 15 October 2015
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Abstract

The objective of this study is to analyze life cycle energy and CO2 emission profiles by employing an input–output analysis method for urban houses in major cities of Indonesia. Two surveys investigating building material inventory and household energy consumption within individual houses were conducted in Bandung in 2011 and 2012. The results show that, if reused and recycled materials were assumed to be zero, the averaged embodied energy for simple, medium and luxurious houses in Bandung was larger than that for their respective houses in Jakarta. Overall, the average annual energy consumption of all samples in Jakarta was approximately 20.6 GJ, which is 5.0 GJ larger than that in Bandung. In terms of life cycle energy, the operational energy accounted for 79%–86% and 69%–81% of the total for respective houses in Jakarta and Bandung. The profiles of life cycle CO2 emissions are similar to those of energy. The results of the scenario analysis prove that the promotion of reusing/recycling is important to reduce building material inputs/waste and their corresponding embodied energy. It is also important to reduce the use of air-conditioning for operational energy in the future by adopting passive cooling techniques wherever possible. View Full-Text
Keywords: embodied energy; household energy consumption; input–output; Indonesia; life cycle assessment embodied energy; household energy consumption; input–output; Indonesia; life cycle assessment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Surahman, U.; Kubota, T.; Higashi, O. Life Cycle Assessment of Energy and CO2 Emissions for Residential Buildings in Jakarta and Bandung, Indonesia. Buildings 2015, 5, 1131-1155.

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