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Laws 2015, 4(3), 335-351; doi:10.3390/laws4030335

Enforcement Issues in the Governance of Ships’ Carbon Emissions

1
Seafarers International Research Centre, Cardiff University, 52 Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT, Wales, UK
2
Cardiff School of Social Sciences & Sustainable Places Research Institute, Cardiff University, Glamorgan Building, King Edward VII Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3WT, Wales, UK
3
U&We, Stora Nygatan 45, Stockholm 111 27, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 June 2015 / Revised: 24 June 2015 / Accepted: 26 June 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
Download PDF [216 KB, uploaded 24 July 2015]

Abstract

The shipping industry, although relatively carbon-efficient, is projected to produce rising carbon emissions in the future as a consequence of increasing world trade. A number of candidate regulations designed to mitigate these emissions have been canvassed by the UN’s International Maritime Organisation and by the European Commission. Many of these schemes are focussed on the use of market measures—emission trading schemes or fuel levies. This paper draws on observational and interview data gathered to examine enforcement issues associated with the control of ships’ sulphur emissions in order to consider the possible enforcement problems that might be associated with projected market measures to control ships’ carbon emissions. Enforcement problems are shown to be associated with the globalised character of the industry and its polycentric governance structure.
Keywords: carbon emissions; shipping; polycentric governance; market measures; emission trading; fuel levy; enforcement; port state control carbon emissions; shipping; polycentric governance; market measures; emission trading; fuel levy; enforcement; port state control
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bloor, M.; Baker, S.; Sampson, H.; Dahlgren, K. Enforcement Issues in the Governance of Ships’ Carbon Emissions. Laws 2015, 4, 335-351.

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