Next Article in Journal
The Role of Mechanical Connection during Friction Stir Keyholeless Spot Welding Joints of Dissimilar Materials
Previous Article in Journal
Low Field Magnetic and Thermal Hysteresis in Antiferromagnetic Dysprosium
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Metals 2017, 7(6), 216; doi:10.3390/met7060216

Microwave and Ultrasound Augmented Leaching of Complicated Zinc Oxide Ores in Ammonia and Ammonium Citrate Solutions

1
State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093, China
2
Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093, China
3
Chemical Engineering Program, The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi 999041, UAE
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1998 KB, uploaded 12 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Recovery of zinc from low grade zinc oxide ore is attempted with ammonia and ammonium citrate solutions augmented by microwave roasting and ultrasound radiation. The influence of the ammonia-ammonium ratio, roasting temperature, ultrasound power, and leaching time were assessed on the recovery of zinc. A maximum zinc recovery of 88.57% could be achieved at a roasting temperature of 673 K, leaching temperature of 298 K, stirring speed of 300 rpm, total ammonia concentration of 5 mol/L with an ammonium citrate concentration of 1.2 mol/L, liquid to solid ratio of 5:1, the ultrasound power was 600 W and the leaching time was 120 min. The enhancement in recovery with increases in the roasting temperature up to 673 K was attributed to the conversion of ZnCO3 to ZnO. The phases of mineral samples and the reaction residues were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). View Full-Text
Keywords: roasting; complicated zinc ores; mineral phase transformation; ammonia leaching roasting; complicated zinc ores; mineral phase transformation; ammonia leaching
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, L.; Li, H.; Peng, J.; Srinivasakannan, C.; Li, S.; Yin, S. Microwave and Ultrasound Augmented Leaching of Complicated Zinc Oxide Ores in Ammonia and Ammonium Citrate Solutions. Metals 2017, 7, 216.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Metals EISSN 2075-4701 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top