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Metals, Volume 7, Issue 6 (June 2017)

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Open AccessArticle Influence of Thickness and Chemical Composition of Hot-Rolled Bands on the Final Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Non-Oriented Electrical Steel Sheets Subjected to Two Different Decarburizing Atmospheres
Metals 2017, 7(6), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7060229
Received: 5 May 2017 / Revised: 2 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
During electrical steel processing, there are usually small variations in both chemical composition and thickness in the hot-rolled material that may lead to different magnetic properties for the same steel grade. Therefore, it is of great importance to know the effects of such
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During electrical steel processing, there are usually small variations in both chemical composition and thickness in the hot-rolled material that may lead to different magnetic properties for the same steel grade. Therefore, it is of great importance to know the effects of such variations on the final microstructure and magnetic properties of these steels. In the present investigation, samples of a specific grade of a commercial hot-rolled grain non-oriented (GNO) electrical steel were taken from different steel batches to investigate the effects of thickness and chemical composition (C, Sn, Mn and Ti) in the hot-rolled material on the final microstructure and magnetic properties (core losses and magnetic permeability) resulting from two different decarburizing annealing cycles. Hot-rolled samples were processed by cold rolling, intermediate annealing, temper-rolling and final decarburization annealing using the same processing parameters. The experimental results show that the minimum core losses and maximum magnetic permeability are obtained with the thinnest steel thickness and the largest grain size. Increasing Sb and Mn contents, and reducing the C and Ti concentrations also improve the magnetic behavior of these steels. It was also found the effect of grain size on the magnetic behavior is more significant than the one of crystallographic texture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alloy Steels) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Temperature-Dependent Properties of Aluminum Alloy on Evolution of Plastic Strain and Residual Stress during Quenching Process
Metals 2017, 7(6), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7060228
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
To lessen quenching residual stresses in aluminum alloy components, theory analysis, quenching experiments, and numerical simulation were applied to investigate the influence of temperature-dependent material properties on the evolution of plastic strain and stress in the forged 2A14 aluminum alloy components during quenching
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To lessen quenching residual stresses in aluminum alloy components, theory analysis, quenching experiments, and numerical simulation were applied to investigate the influence of temperature-dependent material properties on the evolution of plastic strain and stress in the forged 2A14 aluminum alloy components during quenching process. The results show that the thermal expansion coefficients, yield strengths, and elastic moduli played key roles in determining the magnitude of plastic strains. To produce a certain plastic strain, the temperature difference increased with decreasing temperature. It means that the cooling rates at high temperatures play an important role in determining residual stresses. Only reducing the cooling rate at low temperatures does not reduce residual stresses. An optimized quenching process can minimize the residual stresses and guarantee superior mechanical properties. In the quenching process, the cooling rates were low at temperatures above 450 °C and were high at temperatures below 400 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Weight Alloys: Processing, Properties and Their Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce Master Alloy on the Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Commercial Pure Al and Hypoeutectic Al-8Si Alloy
Metals 2017, 7(6), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7060227
Received: 17 April 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce master alloy was synthesized by a method of thermal explosion reaction in pure molten aluminum and used to modify commercial pure Al and hypoeutectic Al-8Si alloy. The microstructure and tensile properties of commercial pure Al and hypoeutectic Al-8Si alloy with different additions
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Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce master alloy was synthesized by a method of thermal explosion reaction in pure molten aluminum and used to modify commercial pure Al and hypoeutectic Al-8Si alloy. The microstructure and tensile properties of commercial pure Al and hypoeutectic Al-8Si alloy with different additions of Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce master alloy were investigated. The results show that the Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce alloy was composed of α-Al, granular TiC, lump-like TiAl3 and block-like Ti2Al20Ce. Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce master alloy (0.3 wt %, 5 min) can significantly refine macro grains of commercial pure Al into tiny equiaxed grains. The Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce master alloy (0.3 wt %, 30 min) still has a good refinement effect. The tensile strength and elongation of commercial pure Al modified by the Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce master alloy (0.3 wt %, 5 min) increased by roughly 19.26% and 61.83%, respectively. Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce master alloy (1.5 wt %, 10 min) can significantly refine both α-Al grains and eutectic Si of hypoeutectic Al-8Si alloy. The dendritic α-Al grains were significantly refined to tiny equiaxed grains. The morphology of the eutectic Si crystals was significantly refined from coarse needle-shape or lath-shape to short rod-like or grain-like eutectic Si. The tensile strength and elongation of hypoeutectic Al-8Si alloy modified by the Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce master alloy (1.5 wt %, 10 min) increased by roughly 20.53% and 50%, respectively. The change in mechanical properties corresponds to evolution of the microstructure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle High Temperature Oxidation and Wear Behaviors of Ti–V–Cr Fireproof Titanium Alloy
Metals 2017, 7(6), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7060226
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 10 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
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Abstract
The high temperature oxidation and wear behaviors of Ti–35V–15Cr–0.3Si–0.1C fireproof titanium alloy were examined at 873 and 1073 K. The oxidation weight gain after oxidation at 1073 K for 100 h was significantly larger than that at 873 K. Based on the analyses
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The high temperature oxidation and wear behaviors of Ti–35V–15Cr–0.3Si–0.1C fireproof titanium alloy were examined at 873 and 1073 K. The oxidation weight gain after oxidation at 1073 K for 100 h was significantly larger than that at 873 K. Based on the analyses of the oxidation reaction index and oxide layer, the oxidation process at 1073 K was mainly controlled by oxidation reaction at the interface between the substrate and oxide layer. Dry sliding wear tests were performed on a pin-on-disk tester in air conditions. The friction coefficient was smaller at 1073 K than that at 873 K, while the volume wear rate at 1073 K was larger due to formation of amount of oxides on the worn surface. When the wearing temperature increased from 873 to 1073 K, the wear mechanism underwent a transition from a combination of abrasive wear and oxidative wear to only oxidative wear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Alloys 2017)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Enhanced Adsorption Removal of Pb(II) and Cr(III) by Using Nickel Ferrite-Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite
Metals 2017, 7(6), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7060225
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4696 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The heavy metals, such as Pb(II) and radioisotope Cr(III), in aqueous solutions are toxic even at trace levels and have caused adverse health impacts on human beings. Hence the removal of these heavy metals from the aqueous environment is of the utmost importance
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The heavy metals, such as Pb(II) and radioisotope Cr(III), in aqueous solutions are toxic even at trace levels and have caused adverse health impacts on human beings. Hence the removal of these heavy metals from the aqueous environment is of the utmost importance to protect biodiversity, hydrosphere ecosystems, and human beings. In this study, the reduced graphene oxide based inverse spinel nickel ferrite (rGONF) nanocomposite has been prepared and was utilized for the removal of Pb(II) and Cr(III) from aqueous solutions. The prepared rGONF has been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The surface characteristics of rGONF were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HR-TEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface analysis. The average particle size of rGONF was found to be 32.0 ± 2.0 nm. The surface site density for the specific surface area (Ns) of rGONF was found to be 0.00238 mol·g−1, which was higher than that of the graphene oxide (GO) and NiFe2O4, which was expected. The prepared rGONF has been successfully applied for the removal of Pb(II) and Cr(III) by batch mode. The batch adsorption studies concluded that the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cr(III) onto rGONF was rapid and the adsorption percentage was more than 99% for both metal ions. The adsorption isotherm results found that the adsorptive removal of both metal ions onto rGONF occurred through monolayer adsorption on a homogeneous surface of rGONF. The pH-edge adsorption results suggest the adsorption occurs through an inner-sphere surface complex, which is proved by 2-pKa-diffusion model fitting, where the pH-edge adsorption data was well fitted. The adsorption of metal ions increased with increasing temperature. The overall obtained results demonstrated that the rGONF was an effective adsorbent for Pb(II) and Cr(III) removal from wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Determination and Removal)
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Open AccessArticle Thermal Model of Rotary Friction Welding for Similar and Dissimilar Metals
Metals 2017, 7(6), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7060224
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 10 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract
Friction welding is one of the foremost welding processes for similar and dissimilar metals. Previously, the process has been modeled utilizing the rudimentary techniques of constant friction and slip-stick friction. The motivation behind this article is to present a new characteristic for temperature
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Friction welding is one of the foremost welding processes for similar and dissimilar metals. Previously, the process has been modeled utilizing the rudimentary techniques of constant friction and slip-stick friction. The motivation behind this article is to present a new characteristic for temperature profile estimation in modeling of the rotary friction welding process. For the first time, a unified model has been exhibited, with an implementation of the phase transformation of similar and dissimilar materials. The model was generated on COMSOL Multiphysics® and thermal and structural modules were used to plot the temperature curve. The curve for the welding of dissimilar metals using the model was generated, compared and analyzed with that of practical curves already acquired through experimentation available in the literature, and then the effect of varying the parameters on the welding of similar metals was also studied. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Niobium on the Changing Behavior of Non-Metallic Inclusions in Solid Alloys Deoxidized with Mn and Si during Heat Treatment at 1473 K
Metals 2017, 7(6), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7060223
Received: 4 April 2017 / Revised: 2 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract
To clarify the effect of niobium (Nb) on the changing behavior of oxide inclusions in alloys containing different concentrations of Mn, Si, and Nb, heat treatment experiments at 1473 K were conducted and changes in the morphology, size, quantity, and composition of these
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To clarify the effect of niobium (Nb) on the changing behavior of oxide inclusions in alloys containing different concentrations of Mn, Si, and Nb, heat treatment experiments at 1473 K were conducted and changes in the morphology, size, quantity, and composition of these inclusions were investigated. The stability of the oxide inclusions in both molten and solid Fe-Mn-Si-Nb alloys was also estimated by thermodynamic calculation using available data. Results showed that the change in the composition of the oxide inclusions owing to heat treatment depended on the concentrations of Nb and Si in the alloy. MnO-SiO2-type oxide inclusions gradually transformed into MnO-Nb2O5-type or MnO-SiO2- & MnO-Nb2O5-type inclusions in low-Si and high-Nb alloys after heating for 60 min. However, the shape of the inclusions did not change clearly. It was indicated that, during the heat treatment at 1473 K, an interface chemical reaction between the Fe-Mn-Si-Nb alloys and the MnO-SiO2-type oxide inclusions occurred according to the experimental and calculation results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alloy Steels) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview A Review of Thiosulfate Leaching of Gold: Focus on Thiosulfate Consumption and Gold Recovery from Pregnant Solution
Metals 2017, 7(6), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7060222
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
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Abstract
Thiosulfate leaching is a promising alternative to cyanidation, and the main hindrances for its wide commercial application are the high thiosulfate consumption and the difficult recovery of dissolved gold. In this review, the four solutions to reduce the consumption of thiosulfate, including the
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Thiosulfate leaching is a promising alternative to cyanidation, and the main hindrances for its wide commercial application are the high thiosulfate consumption and the difficult recovery of dissolved gold. In this review, the four solutions to reduce the consumption of thiosulfate, including the control of reaction conditions, the use of additives, the generation of thiosulfate in situ, and the replacement of traditional cupric-ammonia catalysis, are introduced and evaluated after the presentation of background knowledge about thiosulfate consumption. The replacement of cupric-ammonia catalysis with other metals, such as nickel- and cobalt-based catalysts, is proposed. The reason is that it not only reduces thiosulfate consumption observably via decreasing the redox potential of leach solution significantly but also is beneficial to gold recovery mainly owing to eliminating the interference of cuprous thiosulfate [Cu(S2O3)3]5−. Based on the comparative analysis for five common recovery techniques of rare-noble metals from pregnant leach solution, ion-exchange resin adsorption is considered to be the most appropriate to recover aurothiosulfate [Au(S2O3)2]3− because the resin can be employed in the form of resin-in-leach/pulp and, furthermore, is able to be eluted and regenerated simultaneously at ambient temperature. At last, how to reduce the process cost of the resin adsorption technique is discussed. In order to simplify the complex two-stage elution process for loaded resins, the traditional catalysis is suggested to be replaced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Valuable Metal Recycling)
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Open AccessArticle Robotic Nd:YAG Fiber Laser Welding of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy
Metals 2017, 7(6), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7060221
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
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Abstract
In the present study, Ti6Al4V titanium alloy plates were joined using a robotic fiber laser welding method. The laser welding process was carried out at two different welding speeds. Effects of different heat input conditions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of robotic
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In the present study, Ti6Al4V titanium alloy plates were joined using a robotic fiber laser welding method. The laser welding process was carried out at two different welding speeds. Effects of different heat input conditions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of robotic fiber laser welded joints were investigated. Some grain coarsening was observed in the microstructure of weld metal in samples joined using high heat input, compared to those using low heat input, and volume rates of primary α structures increased in the weld metal. The microstructure of weld metal in samples joined using low heat input was made of basket-weave or acicular α' grains and primary β grains in grain boundaries. Tensile and yield strength of samples joined using low heat input were higher than for those joined using high heat input, but their ductility was lower. Full article
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Open AccessArticle TiO2 Nanotubes on Ti Dental Implant. Part 2: EIS Characterization in Hank’s Solution
Metals 2017, 7(6), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7060220
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 14 June 2017
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Abstract
Titania nanotubes are widely studied for their potential applications in several fields. In this paper, the electrochemical characterization of a dental implant, made of commercially pure titanium grade 2, covered by titania nanotubes, when immersed in Hank’s solution, is proposed. Few papers were
[...] Read more.
Titania nanotubes are widely studied for their potential applications in several fields. In this paper, the electrochemical characterization of a dental implant, made of commercially pure titanium grade 2, covered by titania nanotubes, when immersed in Hank’s solution, is proposed. Few papers were found in the scientific literature regarding this topic, so a brief review is reported, concerning the use of some equivalent circuits to model experimental data. The analysis of results, obtained by using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, showed that: (i) a good correlation exists between the variation of Ecorr and the estimated values of the charge transfer resistance for both the bare- and the nanotube-covered samples, (ii) the nanostructured surface seems to possess a more active behaviour, while the effect could be over-estimated due to the real extent of the surface covered by nanotubes, (iii) the analysis of the “n” parameter, used to fit the experimental data, confirms the complex nature of nanostructured layer as well as that the nanotubes are partially filled by compounds containing Ca, P and Mg, when immersed in Hank’s solution. The results obtained in this work give a better understanding of the electrochemical behaviour of the nanotubes layer when immersed in Hank’s solution and could help to design a surface able to improve the implant osseointegration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of the Temperature in the Mechanical Properties of Austenite, Ferrite and Sigma Phases of Duplex Stainless Steels Using Hardness, Microhardness and Nanoindentation Techniques
Metals 2017, 7(6), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7060219
Received: 29 April 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 10 June 2017 / Published: 14 June 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this work is to study the hardness of the ferrite, austenite and sigma phases of a UNS S32760 superduplex stainless steel submitted to different thermal treatments, thus leading to different percentages of the mentioned phases. A comparative study has been
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The aim of this work is to study the hardness of the ferrite, austenite and sigma phases of a UNS S32760 superduplex stainless steel submitted to different thermal treatments, thus leading to different percentages of the mentioned phases. A comparative study has been performed in order to evaluate the resulting mechanical properties of these phases by using hardness, microhardness and nanoindentation techniques. In addition, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been also used to identify their presence and distribution. Finally, the experimental results have shown that the resulting hardness values were increased as a function of a longer heat treatment duration which it is associated to the formation of a higher percentage of the sigma phase. However, nanoindentation hardness measurements of this sigma phase showed lower values than expected, being a combination of two main factors, namely the complexity of the sigma phase structure as well as the surface finish (roughness). Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Multiphysics Simulation and Experimental Investigation of Aluminum Wettability on a Titanium Substrate for Laser Welding-Brazing Process
Metals 2017, 7(6), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7060218
Received: 5 May 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
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Abstract
The control of metal wettability is a key-factor in the field of brazing or welding-brazing. The present paper deals with the numerical simulation of the whole phenomena occurring during the assembly of dissimilar alloys. The study is realized in the frame of potential
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The control of metal wettability is a key-factor in the field of brazing or welding-brazing. The present paper deals with the numerical simulation of the whole phenomena occurring during the assembly of dissimilar alloys. The study is realized in the frame of potential applications for the aircraft industry, considering the case of the welding-brazing of aluminum Al5754 and quasi-pure titanium Ti40. The assembly configuration, presented here, is a simplification of the real experiment. We have reduced the three-dimensional overlap configuration to a bi-dimensional case. In the present case, an aluminum cylinder is fused onto a titanium substrate. The main physical phenomena which are considered here are: the heat transfers, the fluid flows with free boundaries and the mass transfer in terms of chemical species diffusion. The numerical problem is implemented with the commercial software Comsol Multiphysics™, by coupling heat equation, Navier-Stokes and continuity equations and the free boundary motion. The latter is treated with the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian method, with a particular focus on the contact angle implementation. The comparison between numerical and experimental results shows a very satisfactory agreement in terms of droplet shape, thermal field and intermetallic layer thickness. The model validates our numerical approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Welding)
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Open AccessArticle The Role of Mechanical Connection during Friction Stir Keyholeless Spot Welding Joints of Dissimilar Materials
Metals 2017, 7(6), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7060217
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
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Abstract
Contrast experiments of lap joints among dissimilar AZ31B Mg alloy, Mg99.50, zinc-coated DP600 sheet, and non-zinc-coated DP600 sheet were made by friction stir keyholeless spot welding (FSKSW) and vacuum diffusion welding (VDW), respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) were
[...] Read more.
Contrast experiments of lap joints among dissimilar AZ31B Mg alloy, Mg99.50, zinc-coated DP600 sheet, and non-zinc-coated DP600 sheet were made by friction stir keyholeless spot welding (FSKSW) and vacuum diffusion welding (VDW), respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) were used to investigate the microstructures and components of the joints welded. The experimental results show that the FSKSW bonding method is a kind of compound mode that contains a mechanical connection and element diffusion fusion connection, in which mechanical connection has the main decisive function on joints of Mg/steel. Elements diffusion exists in the interfacial region of the joints and the elements diffusion extent is basically the same to that of VDW. The elements’ diffusion in Mg/steel using FSKSW is defined in the reaction between small amounts elements of the base metal and zinc-coated metals. The intermetallic compounds and composite oxide perform some reinforcement on the mechanical connection strength. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Microwave and Ultrasound Augmented Leaching of Complicated Zinc Oxide Ores in Ammonia and Ammonium Citrate Solutions
Metals 2017, 7(6), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7060216
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
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Abstract
Recovery of zinc from low grade zinc oxide ore is attempted with ammonia and ammonium citrate solutions augmented by microwave roasting and ultrasound radiation. The influence of the ammonia-ammonium ratio, roasting temperature, ultrasound power, and leaching time were assessed on the recovery of
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Recovery of zinc from low grade zinc oxide ore is attempted with ammonia and ammonium citrate solutions augmented by microwave roasting and ultrasound radiation. The influence of the ammonia-ammonium ratio, roasting temperature, ultrasound power, and leaching time were assessed on the recovery of zinc. A maximum zinc recovery of 88.57% could be achieved at a roasting temperature of 673 K, leaching temperature of 298 K, stirring speed of 300 rpm, total ammonia concentration of 5 mol/L with an ammonium citrate concentration of 1.2 mol/L, liquid to solid ratio of 5:1, the ultrasound power was 600 W and the leaching time was 120 min. The enhancement in recovery with increases in the roasting temperature up to 673 K was attributed to the conversion of ZnCO3 to ZnO. The phases of mineral samples and the reaction residues were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Low Field Magnetic and Thermal Hysteresis in Antiferromagnetic Dysprosium
Metals 2017, 7(6), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7060215
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 31 May 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
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Abstract
Magnetic and thermal hysteresis (difference in magnetic properties on cooling and heating) have been studied in polycrystalline Dy (dysprosium) between 80 and 250 K using measurements of the reversible Villari effect and alternating current (AC) susceptibility. We argue that measurement of the reversible
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Magnetic and thermal hysteresis (difference in magnetic properties on cooling and heating) have been studied in polycrystalline Dy (dysprosium) between 80 and 250 K using measurements of the reversible Villari effect and alternating current (AC) susceptibility. We argue that measurement of the reversible Villari effect in the antiferromagnetic phase is a more sensitive method to detect magnetic hysteresis than the registration of conventional B(H) loops. We found that the Villari point, recently reported in the antiferromagnetic phase of Dy at 166 K, controls the essential features of magnetic hysteresis and AC susceptibility on heating from the ferromagnetic state: (i) thermal hysteresis in AC susceptibility and in the reversible Villari effect disappears abruptly at the temperature of the Villari point; (ii) the imaginary part of AC susceptibility is strongly frequency dependent, but only up to the temperature of the Villari point; (iii) the imaginary part of the susceptibility drops sharply also at the Villari point. We attribute these effects observed at the Villari point to the disappearance of the residual ferromagnetic phase. The strong influence of the Villari point on several magnetic properties allows this temperature to be ranked almost as important as the Curie and Néel temperatures in Dy and likely also for other rare earth elements and their alloys. Full article
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