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Metals 2017, 7(6), 185; doi:10.3390/met7060185

Effect of Current on Structure and Macrosegregation in Dual Alloy Ingot Processed by Electroslag Remelting

1,2
,
1,2
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1,2,3,* , 1,2
,
1,2
and
4
1
The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081, China
2
Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081, China
3
Collaborative Innovation Center of Steel Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
4
School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Robert Tuttle
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 13 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alloy Steels)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [12674 KB, uploaded 24 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

Macrosegregation is a very common problem for the quality control of all cast ingots. The effect of current on the structure and macrosegregation in dual alloy ingot processed by electroslag remelting (ESR) was investigated experimentally with various analytical methods. In this study, the electrode consisted of NiCrMoV alloy bar (upper part) and CrMoV alloy (lower part) with a diameter of 55 mm, was remelted in a laboratory-scale ESR furnace with the slag containing 30 mass pct alumina and 70 mass pct calcium fluoride under an open air atmosphere. The results show that the macrostructures of three ingots processed by electroslagremelting with different currents are nearly similar. The thin equiaxed grains region and the columnar grains region are formed under the ingot surface, the latter region is the dominant part of the ingot. The typical columnar structure shows no discontinuity among the NiCrMoV alloy zone, the CrMoV alloy zone, and the transition zone in three ingots. With the increase of the current, the grain growth angle increases due to the deeper molten metal pool. The secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) firstly decreases, then increases. The SDAS is dominated by the combined effect of the local solidification rate and the width of mushy region. With the current increasing from 1500 A to 1800 A and 2100 A, the width of the transition zone decreases from 147 mm to 115 mm and 102 mm. The macrosegregation becomes more severe due to the fiercer flows forced by the Lorentz force and the thermal buoyancy force. The cooling rate firstly increases, then decreases, due to the effect of the flows between the mushy region and metal pool and the temperature gradient at the mushy zone of the solidification front. With a current of 1800 A, the SDAS is the smallest and cooling rate is the fastest, indicating that less dendrite segregation and finer precipitates exist in the ingot. Under the comprehensive consideration, the dual alloy ingot processed by the ESR with a current of 1800 A is the best because it has the smallest SDAS, the appropriate grain growth angle, moderate macrosegregation and thickness of the transition zone. View Full-Text
Keywords: current; structure; macrosegregation; electroslag remelting; dual alloy; transition zone current; structure; macrosegregation; electroslag remelting; dual alloy; transition zone
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Li, G.; Wang, Q.; Wang, L.; Li, B. Effect of Current on Structure and Macrosegregation in Dual Alloy Ingot Processed by Electroslag Remelting. Metals 2017, 7, 185.

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