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Metals 2017, 7(4), 124; doi:10.3390/met7040124

Efficient Use of Porous Hybrid Materials in a Selective Detection of Lead(II) from Aqueous Solutions: An Electrochemical Study

1
Department of Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, Mizoram University, Aizawl 796004, India
2
Department of Integrated Environmental Systems, Pyeongtaek University, Pyeongtaek 17869, Korea
3
Department of Environmental Engineering, Catholic Kwandong University, Gangneung 25601, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tiziano Bellezze
Received: 6 January 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 March 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Determination and Removal)
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Abstract

Due to health and pollution concerns of aquatic environments related to the presence of heavy metal toxic ions, the necessity of developing devices able to detect and to monitor such kinds of species has recently gained importance. Carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) a starting approach to obtain new ion-selective devices by supporting materials like bentonite and/or clay; which become sensitive to lead(II) when they are suitably modified by chemical treatments to obtain different hybrid materials. In this work, two natural clays and three different hybrid materials were produced and then were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to assess their physico-chemical properties. After this stage, the electrochemical characterization of the modified CPEs using hybrid materials was performed by cyclic voltammetry, using the standard Fe(CN)64−/Fe(CN)63− redox couple. Subsequently, this study performed electrochemical experiments on lead(II) containing solutions, to test the ability of the examined CPEs to detect this toxic ion present in very low amounts. Lead(II) exhibited a reversible two electron oxidation/reduction behaviour in the cyclic voltammetry analyses and a reasonably good linear behaviour of the current associated with the oxidation peak as a function of its concentration (5.0–40.0 μg/L). The detection limit was found to vary in the range of 3–5 μg/L for the different modified CPEs. The presence of several co-existing ions showed that an interference variation had occurred. These results, therefore, show a restriction of the selectivity of the electrode up to a certain extent in the lead(II) detection. Finally, tap water with spiked lead(II) was analyzed to verify the suitability of the electrodes in the low level detection of lead(II) from real matrix samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead(II) detection; electrochemical response; selectivity of detection; low detection limit; sensitivity or electrode lead(II) detection; electrochemical response; selectivity of detection; low detection limit; sensitivity or electrode
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zirlianngura; Tiwari, D.; Ha, J.-H.; Lee, S.-M. Efficient Use of Porous Hybrid Materials in a Selective Detection of Lead(II) from Aqueous Solutions: An Electrochemical Study. Metals 2017, 7, 124.

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