Special Issue "Heavy Metal Determination and Removal"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Seung-Mok Lee

Department of Health and Environment, Catholic Kwandong University, Gangneung, South Korea
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Interests: adsorption of heavy metal ions in aqueous environment by using various advanced materials; wastewater treatment; green chemistry; environmental engineering; kinetic modeling; equilibrium
Guest Editor
Prof. Jae-Kyu Yang

Ingenium College of Liberal Arts, Kwangwoon University, Seoul, 139-701, Korea
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Interests: nanomaterial; adsorption; redox reaction; photocatalysis; advanced oxidation; graphene oxide
Guest Editor
Prof. Diwakar Tiwari

Department of Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, Mizoram University, Aizawl-796004, India
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Interests: heavy metals; removal; wastewater; remediation; speciation; bioremediation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The pollution of heavy metals is a special concern due to their non-biodegradability, persistence and tendency to accumulate in the environment. The presence of even trace amounts of heavy metal results in high volumes of contaminated water which possibly cause adverse effects to human health and other living organisms. Several techniques have been reported for the removal of toxic heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Some of the methods are costly and inefficient in controlling the toxicity levels in wastewater, and all traditional techniques have advantages and disadvantages in terms of their effectiveness, cost, and environmental impact. Alternatively, the traditional methods developed for the determination of heavy metal are expensive instruments, and fail to meet the requirement of being portable for onsite analysis. Therefore, the development of efficient and cost effective material or a new technique for the detection and removal of heavy metal remains a challenging task for environmentalists. This Special Issue aims to present the latest research related to advanced techniques for the determination of heavy metal, and the development of a sustainable system for the removal of toxic metals from contaminated water. Research reports associated with the determination and removal of heavy metal from soil are also welcome.

Prof. Seung-Mok Lee
Prof. Jae-Kyu Yang
Prof. Diwakar Tiwari
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Heavy metal
  • Arsenic
  • Heavy metal ions detection
  • Electrochemical sensor
  • Stripping voltammetry
  • Cyclic voltammetry
  • Bioremediation
  • Chemical precipitation
  • Ion exchange
  • Adsorption
  • Membrane filtration
  • Coagulation and flocculation

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Reaction Mechanism and Distribution Behavior of Arsenic in the Bottom Blown Copper Smelting Process
Metals 2017, 7(8), 302; doi:10.3390/met7080302
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 5 August 2017
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Abstract
The control of arsenic, a toxic and carcinogenic element, is an important issue for all copper smelters. In this work, the reaction mechanism and distribution behavior of arsenic in the bottom blown copper smelting process (SKS process) were investigated and compared to the
[...] Read more.
The control of arsenic, a toxic and carcinogenic element, is an important issue for all copper smelters. In this work, the reaction mechanism and distribution behavior of arsenic in the bottom blown copper smelting process (SKS process) were investigated and compared to the flash smelting process. There are obvious differences of arsenic distribution in the SKS process and flash process, resulting from the differences of oxygen potentials, volatilizations, smelting temperatures, reaction intensities, and mass transfer processes. Under stable production conditions, the distributions of arsenic among matte, slag, and gas phases are 6%, 12%, and 82%, respectively. Less arsenic is reported in the gas phase with the flash process than with the SKS process. The main arsenic species in gas phase are AsS (g), AsO (g), and As2 (g). Arsenic exists in the slag predominantly as As2O3 (l), and in matte as As (l). High matte grade is harmful to the elimination of arsenic to gas. The changing of Fe/SiO2 has slight effects on the distributions of arsenic. In order to enhance the removal of arsenic from the SKS smelting system to the gas phase, low oxygen concentration, low ratios of oxygen/ore, and low matte grade should be chosen. In the SKS smelting process, no dust is recycled, and almost all dust is collected and further treated to eliminate arsenic and recover valuable metals by other process streams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Determination and Removal)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Simultaneous Removal of Hg(II) and Phenol Using Functionalized Activated Carbon Derived from Areca Nut Waste
Metals 2017, 7(7), 248; doi:10.3390/met7070248
Received: 30 April 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Areca nut waste was utilized to obtain high surface area activated carbon (AC), and it was further functionalized with succinic anhydride under microwave irradiation. The surface morphology and surface functional groups of the materials were discussed with the help of scanning electron microscope(SEM)
[...] Read more.
Areca nut waste was utilized to obtain high surface area activated carbon (AC), and it was further functionalized with succinic anhydride under microwave irradiation. The surface morphology and surface functional groups of the materials were discussed with the help of scanning electron microscope(SEM) images and fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) analysis. The specific surface area of the AC and functionalized-AC was obtained by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, and found to be 367.303 and 308.032 m2/g, respectively. Batch experiments showed that higher pH favoured the removal of Hg(II), whereas the phenol removal was slightly affected by the changes in the solution pH. The kinetic data followed pseudo-first order kinetic model, and intra-particle diffusion played a significant role in the removal of both pollutants. The maximum sorption capacity of Hg(II) and phenol were evaluated using Langmuir adsorption isotherms, and found to be 11.23 and 5.37 mg/g, respectively. The removal of Hg(II) was significantly suppressed in the presence of chloride ions due to the formation of a HgCl2 species. The phenol was specifically adsorbed, forming the donor–acceptor complexes or π–π electron interactions at the surface of the solid. Further, a fixed-bed column study was conducted for both Hg(II) and phenol. The loading capacity of the column was estimated using the nonlinear Thomas equation, and found to be 2.49 and 2.70 mg/g, respectively. Therefore, the study showed that functionalized AC obtained from areca nut waste could be employed as a sustainable adsorbent for the simultaneous removal of Hg(II) and phenol from polluted water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Determination and Removal)
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Open AccessArticle Separation and Pre-Concentration of Pb and Cd in Water Samples Using 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione (HTT) and Their Determination by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)
Metals 2017, 7(7), 240; doi:10.3390/met7070240
Received: 3 April 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
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Abstract
A new method for the separation, pre-concentration and accurate determination of trace amounts of Pb and Cd in water samples using Amberlite XAD-16 resin functionalized with a new chelating ligand, 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione (HTT), Amberlite XAD-16-HTT and inductively coupled plasma atomic
[...] Read more.
A new method for the separation, pre-concentration and accurate determination of trace amounts of Pb and Cd in water samples using Amberlite XAD-16 resin functionalized with a new chelating ligand, 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione (HTT), Amberlite XAD-16-HTT and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) is reported in the present study. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to characterize the chelating resin. The effects of analytical parameters such as the pH of the medium, amount of adsorbent, type and volume of eluent, flow rate of the sample solution, volume of the sample solution, and matrix interference on the retention of metal ions were investigated. Also, 1 M HNO3 was used for the elution of the sorbed metals, and ICP-AES was used for the analysis of elutes offline. The results indicate that pH 5 is the optimum pH for the sorption of Pb and Cd ions. The limit of detection was found to be 0.16 and 0.22 μg/L for Pb and Cd, respectively, by applying a pre-concentration factor of 50. The method was validated using the international water reference material (NIST 1643e). The developed enrichment method has a high selectivity, sensitivity, and reproducibility; this method was successfully applied for the determination of Pb and Cd in surface water samples collected in Nellore District, Penner River belt as well as Bay of Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, India. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Determination and Removal)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Enhanced Adsorption Removal of Pb(II) and Cr(III) by Using Nickel Ferrite-Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite
Metals 2017, 7(6), 225; doi:10.3390/met7060225
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
PDF Full-text (4696 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The heavy metals, such as Pb(II) and radioisotope Cr(III), in aqueous solutions are toxic even at trace levels and have caused adverse health impacts on human beings. Hence the removal of these heavy metals from the aqueous environment is of the utmost importance
[...] Read more.
The heavy metals, such as Pb(II) and radioisotope Cr(III), in aqueous solutions are toxic even at trace levels and have caused adverse health impacts on human beings. Hence the removal of these heavy metals from the aqueous environment is of the utmost importance to protect biodiversity, hydrosphere ecosystems, and human beings. In this study, the reduced graphene oxide based inverse spinel nickel ferrite (rGONF) nanocomposite has been prepared and was utilized for the removal of Pb(II) and Cr(III) from aqueous solutions. The prepared rGONF has been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The surface characteristics of rGONF were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HR-TEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface analysis. The average particle size of rGONF was found to be 32.0 ± 2.0 nm. The surface site density for the specific surface area (Ns) of rGONF was found to be 0.00238 mol·g−1, which was higher than that of the graphene oxide (GO) and NiFe2O4, which was expected. The prepared rGONF has been successfully applied for the removal of Pb(II) and Cr(III) by batch mode. The batch adsorption studies concluded that the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cr(III) onto rGONF was rapid and the adsorption percentage was more than 99% for both metal ions. The adsorption isotherm results found that the adsorptive removal of both metal ions onto rGONF occurred through monolayer adsorption on a homogeneous surface of rGONF. The pH-edge adsorption results suggest the adsorption occurs through an inner-sphere surface complex, which is proved by 2-pKa-diffusion model fitting, where the pH-edge adsorption data was well fitted. The adsorption of metal ions increased with increasing temperature. The overall obtained results demonstrated that the rGONF was an effective adsorbent for Pb(II) and Cr(III) removal from wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Determination and Removal)
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Open AccessArticle Diatoms and Their Capability for Heavy Metal Removal by Cationic Exchange
Metals 2017, 7(5), 169; doi:10.3390/met7050169
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
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Abstract
This work shows the physicochemical behavior of two different diatoms from the country of Mexico (State of Jalisco and Hidalgo) with similar compositions. These were used to eliminate toxic cations from a synthetic solution containing 5.270 mg As3+/L; 4.280 mg Ag
[...] Read more.
This work shows the physicochemical behavior of two different diatoms from the country of Mexico (State of Jalisco and Hidalgo) with similar compositions. These were used to eliminate toxic cations from a synthetic solution containing 5.270 mg As3+/L; 4.280 mg Ag+/L; 3.950 mgNi2+/L; 4.090 mg Cr6+/L; and 4.081 mg Pb2+/L. These diatoms were used as filters, and the quantity of cations remaining in the solution after filtering was measured. According to the most important results found, for the recovery of metals, both minerals achieved arsenic, silver, lead, and nickel recoveries up to 95%, and lower than 10% for chromium. This could be due to the absence of an environment to reduce Cr6+ to Cr3+. On the other hand, it was observed that there was no selectivity during the recovery of the other cations present in the solution. According to efficiency of interchange, the mineral from Hidalgo is slightly better than the mineral from Jalisco for the removal of arsenic, lead, and silver. For nickel, and particularly Cr6+, the efficiency is higher for the sample from Jalisco. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Determination and Removal)
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Open AccessArticle Efficient Use of Porous Hybrid Materials in a Selective Detection of Lead(II) from Aqueous Solutions: An Electrochemical Study
Metals 2017, 7(4), 124; doi:10.3390/met7040124
Received: 6 January 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 March 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
PDF Full-text (3793 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Due to health and pollution concerns of aquatic environments related to the presence of heavy metal toxic ions, the necessity of developing devices able to detect and to monitor such kinds of species has recently gained importance. Carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) a starting
[...] Read more.
Due to health and pollution concerns of aquatic environments related to the presence of heavy metal toxic ions, the necessity of developing devices able to detect and to monitor such kinds of species has recently gained importance. Carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) a starting approach to obtain new ion-selective devices by supporting materials like bentonite and/or clay; which become sensitive to lead(II) when they are suitably modified by chemical treatments to obtain different hybrid materials. In this work, two natural clays and three different hybrid materials were produced and then were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to assess their physico-chemical properties. After this stage, the electrochemical characterization of the modified CPEs using hybrid materials was performed by cyclic voltammetry, using the standard Fe(CN)64−/Fe(CN)63− redox couple. Subsequently, this study performed electrochemical experiments on lead(II) containing solutions, to test the ability of the examined CPEs to detect this toxic ion present in very low amounts. Lead(II) exhibited a reversible two electron oxidation/reduction behaviour in the cyclic voltammetry analyses and a reasonably good linear behaviour of the current associated with the oxidation peak as a function of its concentration (5.0–40.0 μg/L). The detection limit was found to vary in the range of 3–5 μg/L for the different modified CPEs. The presence of several co-existing ions showed that an interference variation had occurred. These results, therefore, show a restriction of the selectivity of the electrode up to a certain extent in the lead(II) detection. Finally, tap water with spiked lead(II) was analyzed to verify the suitability of the electrodes in the low level detection of lead(II) from real matrix samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Determination and Removal)
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