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Metals 2016, 6(8), 190; doi:10.3390/met6080190

Gas-Solid Reaction Route toward the Production of Intermetallics from Their Corresponding Oxide Mixtures

1
Division of Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå, Sweden
2
Department of Minerals Technology, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, Box 87-Helwan, Cairo, Egypt
3
Instituto de Investigación en Metalurgia y Materiales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 58030, Morelia, México
4
Centre of Excellence in Steel Technology (CoEST), Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, 400076 Mumbai, India
5
Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), S-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ana Sofia Ramos
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 3 August 2016 / Accepted: 10 August 2016 / Published: 17 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intermetallics 2016)

Abstract

Near-net shape forming of metallic components from metallic powders produced in situ from reduction of corresponding pure metal oxides has not been explored to a large extent. Such a process can be probably termed in short as the “Reduction-Sintering” process. This methodology can be especially effective in producing components containing refractory metals. Additionally, in situ production of metallic powder from complex oxides containing more than one metallic element may result in in situ alloying during reduction, possibly at lower temperatures. With this motivation, in situ reduction of complex oxides mixtures containing more than one metallic element has been investigated intensively over a period of years in the department of materials science, KTH, Sweden. This review highlights the most important features of that investigation. The investigation includes not only synthesis of intermetallics and refractory metals using the gas solid reaction route but also study the reaction kinetics and mechanism. Environmentally friendly gases like H2, CH4 and N2 were used for simultaneous reduction, carburization and nitridation, respectively. Different techniques have been utilized. A thermogravimetric analyzer was used to accurately control the process conditions and obtain reaction kinetics. The fluidized bed technique has been utilized to study the possibility of bulk production of intermetallics compared to milligrams in TGA. Carburization and nitridation of nascent formed intermetallics were successfully carried out. A novel method based on material thermal property was explored to track the reaction progress and estimate the reaction kinetics. This method implies the dynamic measure of thermal diffusivity using laser flash method. These efforts end up with a successful preparation of nanograined intermetallics like Fe-Mo and Ni-W. In addition, it ends up with simultaneous reduction and synthesis of Ni-WN and Ni-WC from their oxide mixtures in single step. View Full-Text
Keywords: gas-solid reactions; fluidization reaction; nanosized structures gas-solid reactions; fluidization reaction; nanosized structures
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmed, H.; Morales-Estrella, R.; Viswanathan, N.; Seetharaman, S. Gas-Solid Reaction Route toward the Production of Intermetallics from Their Corresponding Oxide Mixtures. Metals 2016, 6, 190.

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