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Metals 2015, 5(3), 1462-1486; doi:10.3390/met5031462

Water Impingement Erosion of Deep-Rolled Ti64

1
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Montreal, QC H3G 1M8, Canada
2
Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Masdar Institute, P.O. Box 54224, Abu Dhabi, UAE
3
Rolls-Royce Canada Ltd.—Energy, 9545 Cote-de-Liesse, Dorval, QC H9P 1A5, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hugo F. Lopez
Received: 10 June 2015 / Revised: 22 July 2015 / Accepted: 13 August 2015 / Published: 18 August 2015

Abstract

In this work, the Liquid Impingement Erosion (LIE) performances of deep-rolling (DR) treated and non-treated Ti64 were investigated. Various erosion stages, from the incubation to the terminal erosion stages, could be observed. A full factorial design of experiments was used to study the effect of DR process parameters (Feed Rate, Spindle Velocity, Number of Passes, Pressure) on the residual stress distribution, microhardness and surface roughness of the treated Ti64 specimens. The DR-treated Ti64 specimens exhibited improved surface microhardness, surface roughness, and large magnitude of compressive residual stresses, which were attributed to the amount of cold work induced by the DR process. Although DR improved the mechanical properties of the Ti64, the results showed that the treatment has little or no effect on the LIE performance of Ti64 but different damage modes were observed in these two cases. Evolution of the erosion stages was described based on water-hammer pressure, stress waves, radial wall jetting, and hydraulic penetration modes. The initial erosion stages were mainly influenced by water-hammer pressure and stress waves, whereas the intermediate erosion stages were influenced by the combination of the four modes together. The final erosion stages contain the four modes, however the erosion was greatly driven by the radial jetting and hydraulic penetration modes, where more material was removed. The failure mechanism of the final stages of the LIE test of both DR-treated and non-treated Ti64 was characterized as fatigue fracture. However, a brittle fracture behavior was observed in the initial and intermediate erosion stages of the DR-treated Ti64, whereas a ductile fracture behavior was observed in the non-treated Ti64. This was concluded from the micrographs of the LIE damage through different erosion stages. View Full-Text
Keywords: deep-rolling (DR); titanium alloys; design of experiments (DOE); liquid impingement erosion (LIE); fatigue failure; SEM; Ti64 deep-rolling (DR); titanium alloys; design of experiments (DOE); liquid impingement erosion (LIE); fatigue failure; SEM; Ti64
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ma, D.; Mostafa, A.; Kevorkov, D.; Jedrzejowski, P.; Pugh, M.; Medraj, M. Water Impingement Erosion of Deep-Rolled Ti64. Metals 2015, 5, 1462-1486.

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