Metals 2012, 2(4), 478-487; doi:10.3390/met2040478
Article

Analysis of Heavy Metal in Electrocoagulated Metal Hydroxide Sludge (EMHS) from the Textile Industry by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF)

1 School of Environmental Systems Engineering, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia 2 Department of Environmental Science, Z. H. Sikder University of Science & Technology, Modhupur, Bhedergonj, Shariatpur 8024, Bangladesh 3 Department of Environmental Sciences, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh 4 Instrumentation and Calibration Service Laboratory (ICSL), Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR), Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh 5 Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, BC, V2N 4Z9, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 October 2012; in revised form: 20 November 2012 / Accepted: 23 November 2012 / Published: 3 December 2012
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Abstract: Environmental pollution due to discharges of heavy metal containing sludge from textile industries is a common nuisance in Bangladesh, where no treatment of sludge is carried out before final disposals. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was employed in the present study to analyze the heavy metal content of Electrocoagulated Metal Hydroxide Sludge (EMHS) collected from a composite textile industry. Thirteen heavy metals, viz., Mn, Ti, Cu, Zn, Ni, Sr, V, Cr, Zr, Hg, Cd, Nb and Ga, were detected. Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd exceeded the permissible limit to apply the EMHS in agricultural land. Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn were compared to the values of the European legislation to evaluate the environmental risk and to classify the wastes as inert wastes or as wastes that have to be control landfilled. EMHS was categorized as class I and needs to be deposited in controlled landfills.
Keywords: electrocoagulation; textile sludge; X-ray optics; landfill; Bangladesh

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MDPI and ACS Style

Adyel, T.M.; Rahman, S.H.; Khan, M.; Islam, S.N. Analysis of Heavy Metal in Electrocoagulated Metal Hydroxide Sludge (EMHS) from the Textile Industry by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). Metals 2012, 2, 478-487.

AMA Style

Adyel TM, Rahman SH, Khan M, Islam SN. Analysis of Heavy Metal in Electrocoagulated Metal Hydroxide Sludge (EMHS) from the Textile Industry by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). Metals. 2012; 2(4):478-487.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Adyel, Tanveer M.; Rahman, Syed H.; Khan, Mala; Islam, S.M. N. 2012. "Analysis of Heavy Metal in Electrocoagulated Metal Hydroxide Sludge (EMHS) from the Textile Industry by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF)." Metals 2, no. 4: 478-487.

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