Next Article in Journal
Kinematics and Kinetics of Youth Baseball Catchers and Pitchers
Next Article in Special Issue
Effectiveness of Different Rest Intervals Following Whole-Body Vibration on Vertical Jump Performance between College Athletes and Recreationally Trained Females
Previous Article in Journal
Recommendations for Recruiting and Retaining Adolescent Girls in Chronic Exercise (Training) Research Studies
Previous Article in Special Issue
Less Is More: The Physiological Basis for Tapering in Endurance, Strength, and Power Athletes
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sports 2015, 3(3), 236-245;

Angle Specific Analysis of Side-to-Side Asymmetry in the Shoulder Rotators

Physical Education School, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, Felizardo Street, 750—Jardim Botânico, Porto Alegre/RS 90690-200, Brazil
Department of Kinesiology, KHS 233 800 N. State College Blvd., California State University, Fullerton 92831, CA, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eling de Bruin
Received: 16 July 2015 / Revised: 26 August 2015 / Accepted: 27 August 2015 / Published: 31 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength and Conditioning)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [125 KB, uploaded 31 August 2015]   |  


Although side-to-side asymmetry of the shoulder rotators calculated by independent peak torque (IPT) has been used for interpretation of injury risks in athletes, it may not measure strength through the entire range of motion (ROM) tested. The aim of this study was to compare side-to-side asymmetry of the shoulder rotators between independent peak torque (IPT) and ten-degree angle specific torque (AST). Twenty healthy adult males (24.65 ± 2.4 years) performed concentric and eccentric internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) of the preferred and non-preferred arms on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/s through 150° of total ROM. The total ROM was divided into 14 ten-degree angles of the physiological ROM from −90° of ER to 60° of IR. Concentric and eccentric IR IPT (10.5% ± 8.7% and 12.1% ± 7.2%) and ER IPT (13.6% ± 9.8% and 8.7% ± 5.6%) were significantly less than AST at several angles (p < 0.05). IPT might lead to erroneous interpretations of side-to-side asymmetry in the shoulder rotators and does not represent the entire ROM tested. This information could be used to prescribe strength exercises to enhance overhead performance and reduce risk of shoulder injuries. View Full-Text
Keywords: angle specific torque; independent peak torque; strength imbalance; injury prevention; performance enhancement angle specific torque; independent peak torque; strength imbalance; injury prevention; performance enhancement

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ruas, C.V.; Pinto, R.S.; Cadore, E.L.; Brown, L.E. Angle Specific Analysis of Side-to-Side Asymmetry in the Shoulder Rotators. Sports 2015, 3, 236-245.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sports EISSN 2075-4663 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top