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Insects 2018, 9(3), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects9030117

Nematobacterial Complexes and Insect Hosts: Different Weapons for the Same War

Laboratory of Comparative Immunology and Parasitology, Department of Theoretical and Applied Sciences, University of Insubria, 21100 Varese, Italy
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Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are widely used as biological control agents against insect pests, the efficacy of these organisms strongly depends on the balance between the parasitic strategies and the immune response of the host. This review summarizes roles and relationships between insect hosts and two well-known EPN species, Steinernema feltiae and Steinernema carpocapsae and outlines the main mechanisms of immune recognition and defense of insects. Analyzing information and findings about these EPNs, it is clear that these two species use shared immunosuppression strategies, mainly mediated by their symbiotic bacteria, but there are differences in both the mechanism of evasion and interference of the two nematodes with the insect host immune pathways. Based on published data, S. feltiae takes advantage of the cross reaction between its body surface and some host functional proteins, to inhibit defensive processes; otherwise, secretion/excretion products from S. carpocapsae seem to be the main nematode components responsible for the host immunosuppression. View Full-Text
Keywords: entomopathogenic nematodes; innate immunity; insect host; Steinernema feltiae; Steinernema carpocapsae; Xenorhabdus bovienii; Xenorhabdus nematophila; host-parasite entomopathogenic nematodes; innate immunity; insect host; Steinernema feltiae; Steinernema carpocapsae; Xenorhabdus bovienii; Xenorhabdus nematophila; host-parasite
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Brivio, M.F.; Mastore, M. Nematobacterial Complexes and Insect Hosts: Different Weapons for the Same War. Insects 2018, 9, 117.

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