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Insects 2018, 9(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects9020069

Prediction of Sporulation and Germination by the Spider Mite Pathogenic Fungus Neozygites floridana (Neozygitomycetes: Neozygitales: Neozygitaceae) Based on Temperature, Humidity and Time

1
Department of Entomology and Acarology; ESALQ-University of São Paulo (USP), Av Padua Dias, 11 P.O. Box 9, 13418-900 Piracicaba, Brazil
2
Koppert Biological Systems Brazil, Microbiology Product & Development Department, Rodovia Margarida da Graça Martins km 17,5 s/n (SP 135-Estrada Tupi), P.O. Box 35. 13400-970 Piracicaba SP, Brazil
3
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Maynooth University, Maynooth, W23 HW31 Co. Kildare, Ireland
4
Department of Exact Sciences, ESALQ-University of São Paulo (USP), Av Padua Dias, 11 P.O. Box 9, 13418-900 Piracicaba, Brazil
5
Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), Division of Biotechnology and Plant Health, Høgskoleveien 7, N-1431 Ås, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms Underlying Transmission of Insect Pathogens)
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Abstract

Neozygites floridana is a pathogenic fungus and natural enemy of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), which is an important polyphagous plant pest. The aim of this study was to reveal and predict what combination of temperature, relative humidity (RH), and time that enables and promotes primary conidia production and capilliconidia formation in N. floridana (Brazilian isolate ESALQ 1420), in both a detached leaf assay mimicking climatic conditions in the leaf boundary layer and in a semi-field experiment. In the detached leaf assay, a significant number of conidia were produced at 90% RH but the highest total number of primary conidia and proportion of capilliconidia was found at 95 and 100% RH at 25 °C. Positive temperature and RH effects were observed and conidia production was highest in the 8 to 12 h interval. The semi-field experiment showed that for a >90% probability of N. floridana sporulation, a minimum of 6 h with RH >90% and 10 h with temperatures >21 °C, or 6 h with temperatures >21 °C and 15 h with RH >90% was needed. Our study identified suitable conditions for primary- and capilliconidia production in this Brazilian N. floridana isolate. This information provides an important base for building models of a Decision Support System (DSS) where this natural enemy may be used as a tool in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and a base for developing in vivo production systems of N. floridana. View Full-Text
Keywords: abiotic factors; microbial control; Tetranychidae; Entomophthorales; phytobiome; sporulation; integrated pest management (IPM); Decision Support System (DSS) abiotic factors; microbial control; Tetranychidae; Entomophthorales; phytobiome; sporulation; integrated pest management (IPM); Decision Support System (DSS)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Castro, T.; Moral, R.A.; Demétrio, C.G.B.; Delalibera, I.; Klingen, I. Prediction of Sporulation and Germination by the Spider Mite Pathogenic Fungus Neozygites floridana (Neozygitomycetes: Neozygitales: Neozygitaceae) Based on Temperature, Humidity and Time. Insects 2018, 9, 69.

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