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Insects 2018, 9(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects9020043

Susceptibility Status and Resistance Mechanisms in Permethrin-Selected, Laboratory Susceptible and Field-Collected Aedes aegypti from Malaysia

1
Medical Entomology Unit, Infectious Disease Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, Kuala Lumpur 505888, Malaysia
2
State Key Laboratory for Infectious Diseases Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract

This study is intended to provide a comprehensive characterization of the resistance mechanisms in the permethrin-selected (IMR-PSS) and laboratory susceptible (IMR-LS) Aedes aegypti strain from Malaysia. Both IMR-PSS and IMR-LS provide a standard model for use in assessing the pyrethroid resistance in field-collected strains collected from three dengue hotspots: the Taman Seri Bayu (TSB), the Flat Camar (FC), and the Taman Dahlia (TD). Two established methods for determining the resistance mechanisms of the pyrethroid are the quantification of detoxification enzymes via enzyme microassay and the nucleotide sequencing of the domain 2 region from segment 1 to 6 via classical polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification—were employed. Enzyme activities in IMR-LS served as the resistance threshold reference, providing a significant standard for comparison with IMR-PSS and other field-collected strains. The amino acids in the domain 2 region of voltage-gated sodium channel (Vgsc) of IMR-LS were served as the reference for detection of any changes of the knockdown resistance (kdr) alleles in IMR-PSS and field-collected strains. Studies clearly indicated that the IMR-LS was highly susceptible to insecticides, whilst the IMR-PSS was highly resistant to pyrethroids and conferred with two resistance mechanisms: the elevated oxidase enzyme activity and the altered target-site mutations. Mutations of V1023G alone, and the combination mutations of V1023G with S996P in IMR-PSS, as well as the in field-collected Aedes aegypti strain, indicate the spread of the (kdr) gene in Aedes aegypti, particularly in dengue-endemic areas in Malaysia. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aedes aegypti; permethrin resistance; enzyme detoxification Aedes aegypti; permethrin resistance; enzyme detoxification
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Rasli, R.; Lee, H.L.; Wasi Ahmad, N.; Fikri, S.F.F.; Ali, R.; Muhamed, K.A.; Hadi, A.A.; Liu, Q.-Y.; Meng, F.X. Susceptibility Status and Resistance Mechanisms in Permethrin-Selected, Laboratory Susceptible and Field-Collected Aedes aegypti from Malaysia. Insects 2018, 9, 43.

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