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Insects 2016, 7(2), 26; doi:10.3390/insects7020026

Hypoxia Treatment of Callosobruchus maculatus Females and Its Effects on Reproductive Output and Development of Progeny Following Exposure

1
Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
2
Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nickolas Kavallieratos, Vincenzo Palmeri, Christos Athanassiou and Orlando Campolo
Received: 29 April 2016 / Revised: 8 June 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 17 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives to Chemical Control of Stored-Product Insects)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [665 KB, uploaded 17 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Modified atmospheres present a residue-free alternative to fumigants for controlling postharvest pests of grain during storage. How sub-lethal applications of this method affects the reproductive fitness of target pests, however, is still not fully understood. We examined how low levels of ambient oxygen influence the reproduction of the female cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus), a pest of cowpea. We used three low-oxygen atmospheres—2%, 5% and 10% (v/v) oxygen—and observed their effects on: (1) the number of eggs laid by bruchids compared to insects held in normoxic (~20% oxygen) conditions; (2) the total number of eggs laid; and (3) the number of progeny that reached maturity. Low oxygen did not significantly affect the number of eggs laid during 48 or 72 h of exposure, but 2% and 5% oxygen did negatively affected total egg production. Increasing the exposure time from 48 to 72 h further depressed lifetime reproductive output. Maternal and egg exposure to hypoxia reduced the number of progeny that reached adulthood. Lower adult emergence was observed from eggs laid under low oxygen and longer exposure times. These data demonstrate that hermetic conditions depress the egg-laying behavior of cowpea bruchids and the successful development of their progeny. View Full-Text
Keywords: Callosobruchus maculatus; hypoxia; reproduction; egg development; hermetic storage Callosobruchus maculatus; hypoxia; reproduction; egg development; hermetic storage
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yan, Y.; Williams, S.B.; Baributsa, D.; Murdock, L.L. Hypoxia Treatment of Callosobruchus maculatus Females and Its Effects on Reproductive Output and Development of Progeny Following Exposure. Insects 2016, 7, 26.

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