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Insects 2016, 7(2), 15; doi:10.3390/insects7020015

Toxicity of Insecticides on Various Life Stages of Two Tortricid Pests of Cranberries and on a Non-Target Predator

1
P.E. Marucci Center for Blueberry & Cranberry Research & Extension, Rutgers University, 125A Lake Oswego Rd., Chatsworth, NJ 08019, USA
2
Departamento de Protección de Cultivos, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Agrónoma, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Avenida Complutense s/n, Madrid 28040, Spain
3
Departmento de Entomologia, Universidade Federal de Lavras, PO Box 3037, CEP 37200-000 Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Authors contributed equally to this manuscript.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Michael J. Stout, Jeff Davis, Rodrigo Diaz and Julien M. Beuzelin
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 8 April 2016 / Accepted: 11 April 2016 / Published: 15 April 2016
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Abstract

Laboratory and extended laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the residual toxicities of various insecticides against two key pests of cranberries, Sparganothis sulfureana and Choristoneura parallela (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and their non-target effects on the predatory Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). The effects of nine insecticides with different modes of action on S. sulfureana and Ch. parallela eggs, larvae, and adults were tested in the laboratory, while the efficacy of a post-bloom application on larval mortality and mass of these pests and on adult O. insidiosus was evaluated in extended laboratory experiments. The organophosphate chlorpyrifos and the spinosyn spinetoram provided long-lasting (seven-day) control against all stages of both pests. The growth regulator methoxyfenozide and the diamides chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole had strong (1–7 days) larvicidal, particularly on young larvae, and growth inhibitory activity, but only the diamides were adulticidal. Among neonicotinoids, acetamiprid had stronger ovicidal and adulticidal activity than thiamethoxam, showing within-insecticide class differences in toxicities; however, both were weak on larvae. Lethality of novaluron and indoxacarb was inconsistent, varying depending on species and stage. Chlorpyrifos was most toxic to O. insidiosus. These results show species- and stage-specific toxicities, and greater compatibility with biological control, of the newer reduced-risk classes of insecticides than older chemistries. View Full-Text
Keywords: IPM; reduced-risk insecticides; Sparganothis sulfureana; Choristoneura parallela; conservation biological control; Orius insidiosus IPM; reduced-risk insecticides; Sparganothis sulfureana; Choristoneura parallela; conservation biological control; Orius insidiosus
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodriguez-Saona, C.; Wanumen, A.C.; Salamanca, J.; Holdcraft, R.; Kyryczenko-Roth, V. Toxicity of Insecticides on Various Life Stages of Two Tortricid Pests of Cranberries and on a Non-Target Predator. Insects 2016, 7, 15.

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