Next Article in Journal
The First Order Transfer Function in the Analysis of Agrochemical Data in Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera L.): Proboscis Extension Reflex (PER) Studies
Previous Article in Journal
The Bee as a Model to Investigate Brain and Behavioural Asymmetries
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Insects 2014, 5(1), 139-166; doi:10.3390/insects5010139

Common Virulence Factors and Tissue Targets of Entomopathogenic Bacteria for Biological Control of Lepidopteran Pests

1
Center for Insect Science, University of Arizona, 1007 E. Lowell Street, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
2
Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, 1140 E. South Campus Dr., Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 September 2013 / Revised: 13 December 2013 / Accepted: 17 December 2013 / Published: 6 January 2014
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [265 KB, uploaded 6 January 2014]

Abstract

This review focuses on common insecticidal virulence factors from entomopathogenic bacteria with special emphasis on two insect pathogenic bacteria Photorhabdus (Proteobacteria: Enterobacteriaceae) and Bacillus (Firmicutes: Bacillaceae). Insect pathogenic bacteria of diverse taxonomic groups and phylogenetic origin have been shown to have striking similarities in the virulence factors they produce. It has been suggested that the detection of phage elements surrounding toxin genes, horizontal and lateral gene transfer events, and plasmid shuffling occurrences may be some of the reasons that virulence factor genes have so many analogs throughout the bacterial kingdom. Comparison of virulence factors of Photorhabdus, and Bacillus, two bacteria with dissimilar life styles opens the possibility of re-examining newly discovered toxins for novel tissue targets. For example, nematodes residing in the hemolymph may release bacteria with virulence factors targeting neurons or neuromuscular junctions. The first section of this review focuses on toxins and their context in agriculture. The second describes the mode of action of toxins from common entomopathogens and the third draws comparisons between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The fourth section reviews the implications of the nervous system in biocontrol. View Full-Text
Keywords: Photorhabdus; Bacillus thuringiensis; virulence factors; toxins; neurobiology; Mcf; Tc; Cry Photorhabdus; Bacillus thuringiensis; virulence factors; toxins; neurobiology; Mcf; Tc; Cry
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Castagnola, A.; Stock, S.P. Common Virulence Factors and Tissue Targets of Entomopathogenic Bacteria for Biological Control of Lepidopteran Pests. Insects 2014, 5, 139-166.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Insects EISSN 2075-4450 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top