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Insects 2013, 4(4), 694-711; doi:10.3390/insects4040694
Article

Compatibility of Isaria fumosorosea (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) Blastospores with Agricultural Chemicals Used for Management of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

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Received: 22 August 2013; in revised form: 17 October 2013 / Accepted: 1 November 2013 / Published: 26 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Pathology)
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Abstract: Biorational insecticides are being increasingly emphasized for inclusion in integrated pest management programs for invasive insects. The entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea, can be used to help manage the Asian citrus psyllid with minimal impact on beneficial arthropods, but its effectiveness may be compromised by agrochemicals used to control concurrent arthropod pests and diseases. We evaluated the compatibility of I. fumosorosea blastospores with a range of spray oils and copper-based fungicides registered for use in citrus groves. Results of laboratory and greenhouse tests showed a range of responses of the fungus to the different materials, including compatibility and incompatibility. Overall, I. fumosorosea growth in vitro was reduced least by petroleum-based materials and most by botanical oils and borax, and some of the copper-based fungicides, suggesting that tank mixing of I. fumosorosea with these latter products should be avoided. However, equivalent negative effects of test materials on fungal pathogenicity were not always observed in tests with adult psyllids. We hypothesize that some oils enhanced adherence of blastospores to the insect cuticle, overcoming negative impacts on germination. Our data show that care should be taken in selecting appropriate agrochemicals for tank-mixing with commercial formulations of entomopathogenic fungi for management of citrus pests. The prospects of using I. fumosorosea for managing the invasive Asian citrus psyllid and other citrus pests are discussed.
Keywords: entomopathogenic fungi; citrus; pathogenicity; agrochemicals; bioassay; oils; fungicides; virulence; IPM entomopathogenic fungi; citrus; pathogenicity; agrochemicals; bioassay; oils; fungicides; virulence; IPM
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Avery, P.B.; Pick, D.A.; Aristizábal, L.F.; Kerrigan, J.; Powell, C.A.; Rogers, M.E.; Arthurs, S.P. Compatibility of Isaria fumosorosea (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) Blastospores with Agricultural Chemicals Used for Management of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Insects 2013, 4, 694-711.

AMA Style

Avery PB, Pick DA, Aristizábal LF, Kerrigan J, Powell CA, Rogers ME, Arthurs SP. Compatibility of Isaria fumosorosea (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) Blastospores with Agricultural Chemicals Used for Management of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Insects. 2013; 4(4):694-711.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Avery, Pasco B.; Pick, David A.; Aristizábal, Luis F.; Kerrigan, James; Powell, Charles A.; Rogers, Michael E.; Arthurs, Steven P. 2013. "Compatibility of Isaria fumosorosea (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) Blastospores with Agricultural Chemicals Used for Management of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)." Insects 4, no. 4: 694-711.

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