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Insects 2013, 4(3), 425-446; doi:10.3390/insects4030425
Review

Occurrence and Prevalence of Insect Pathogens in Populations of the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella L.: A Long-Term Diagnostic Survey

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Received: 14 May 2013; in revised form: 15 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 2 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Pathology)
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Abstract: About 20,550 larvae, pupae and adults of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., were diagnosed for pathogens during long-term investigations (1955–2012) at the Institute for Biological Control in Darmstadt, Germany. The prevailing entomopathogens diagnosed in these studies were insect pathogenic fungi, especially Beauveria bassiana and Isaria farinosa, the microsporidium, Nosema carpocapsae, the Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV), as well as mostly undetermined bacteria. While the CpGV was observed exclusively in larvae and pupae from laboratory colonies or from field experiments with this virus, entomopathogenic fungi were most frequently diagnosed in last instars in autumn and in diapausing larvae and pupae in spring. B. bassiana was identified as the major fungal pathogen, causing larval prevalences of 0.9% to 100% (mean, about 32%). During prognostic long-term studies in larvae and adults of C. pomonella, N. carpocapsae was diagnosed in codling moth populations from various locations in Germany. The mean prevalence generally ranged between 20% and 50%. Experiments revealed that the fecundity and fertility of microsporidia-infected female adults were significantly reduced compared to healthy ones. The results underpin the importance of naturally occurring microbial antagonists and represent a base for further ecological studies on developing new or additional biological and integrated control strategies.
Keywords: Cydia pomonella; diagnosis; insect pathogens; granulovirus; fungi; Beauveria bassiana; Nosema carpocapsae; host-pathogen-interactions Cydia pomonella; diagnosis; insect pathogens; granulovirus; fungi; Beauveria bassiana; Nosema carpocapsae; host-pathogen-interactions
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zimmermann, G.; Huger, A.M.; Kleespies, R.G. Occurrence and Prevalence of Insect Pathogens in Populations of the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella L.: A Long-Term Diagnostic Survey. Insects 2013, 4, 425-446.

AMA Style

Zimmermann G, Huger AM, Kleespies RG. Occurrence and Prevalence of Insect Pathogens in Populations of the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella L.: A Long-Term Diagnostic Survey. Insects. 2013; 4(3):425-446.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zimmermann, Gisbert; Huger, Alois M.; Kleespies, Regina G. 2013. "Occurrence and Prevalence of Insect Pathogens in Populations of the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella L.: A Long-Term Diagnostic Survey." Insects 4, no. 3: 425-446.

Insects EISSN 2075-4450 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert