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Insects 2013, 4(3), 287-319; doi:10.3390/insects4030287
Review

Virology, Epidemiology and Pathology of Glossina Hytrosavirus, and Its Control Prospects in Laboratory Colonies of the Tsetse Fly, Glossina pallidipes (Diptera; Glossinidae)

1,2,3,* , 1
, 1
, 2
, 2
 and 2
1 Laboratory of Virology, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, Wageningen 6708 PB, The Netherlands 2 Insect Pest Control Laboratories, Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagrammer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna, Austria 3 Biotechnology Centre, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Waiyaki Way, P.O. Box 14733-00100, Nairobi, Kenya
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 May 2013 / Revised: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 13 June 2013 / Published: 2 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Pathology)
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Abstract

The Glossina hytrosavirus (family Hytrosaviridae) is a double-stranded DNA virus with rod-shaped, enveloped virions. Its 190 kbp genome encodes 160 putative open reading frames. The virus replicates in the nucleus, and acquires a fragile envelope in the cell cytoplasm. Glossina hytrosavirus was first isolated from hypertrophied salivary glands of the tsetse fly, Glossina pallidipes Austen (Diptera; Glossinidae) collected in Kenya in 1986. A certain proportion of laboratory G. pallidipes flies infected by Glossina hytrosavirus develop hypertrophied salivary glands and midgut epithelial cells, gonadal anomalies and distorted sex-ratios associated with reduced insemination rates, fecundity and lifespan. These symptoms are rare in wild tsetse populations. In East Africa, G. pallidipes is one of the most important vectors of African trypanosomosis, a debilitating zoonotic disease that afflicts 37 sub-Saharan African countries. There is a large arsenal of control tactics available to manage tsetse flies and the disease they transmit. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a robust control tactic that has shown to be effective in eradicating tsetse populations when integrated with other control tactics in an area-wide integrated approach. The SIT requires production of sterile male flies in large production facilities. To supply sufficient numbers of sterile males for the SIT component against G. pallidipes, strategies have to be developed that enable the management of the Glossina hytrosavirus in the colonies. This review provides a historic chronology of the emergence and biogeography of Glossina hytrosavirus, and includes researches on the infectomics (defined here as the functional and structural genomics and proteomics) and pathobiology of the virus. Standard operation procedures for viral management in tsetse mass-rearing facilities are proposed and a future outlook is sketched.
Keywords: Glossina; Musca; trypanosomosis; hytrosavirus; sterile insect technique; SIT; salivary gland hypertrophy; SGH Glossina; Musca; trypanosomosis; hytrosavirus; sterile insect technique; SIT; salivary gland hypertrophy; SGH
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Kariithi, H.M.; van Oers, M.M.; Vlak, J.M.; Vreysen, M.J.B.; Parker, A.G.; Abd-Alla, A.M.M. Virology, Epidemiology and Pathology of Glossina Hytrosavirus, and Its Control Prospects in Laboratory Colonies of the Tsetse Fly, Glossina pallidipes (Diptera; Glossinidae). Insects 2013, 4, 287-319.

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