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Integrated Management of European Cherry Fruit Fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.): Situation in Switzerland and Europe
Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Ackerstrasse 21, Postfach 219, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland
Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW), Department of Natural Resources Sciences, Grueental, P.O. Box 335, CH-8820 Waedenswil, Switzerland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 August 2012; in revised form: 28 September 2012 / Accepted: 8 October 2012 / Published: 16 October 2012
Abstract: The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a highly destructive pest. The low tolerance for damaged fruit requires preventive insecticide treatments for a marketable crop. The phase-out of old insecticides threatens cherry production throughout the European Union (EU). Consequently, new management techniques and tools are needed. With the increasing number of dwarf tree orchards covered against rain to avoid fruit splitting, crop netting has become a viable, cost-effective method of cherry fruit fly control. Recently, a biocontrol method using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been developed for organic agriculture. However, for most situations, there is still a lack of efficient and environmentally sound insecticides to control this pest. This review summarizes the literature from over one hundred years of research on R. cerasi with focus on the biology and history of cherry fruit fly control as well as on antagonists and potential biocontrol organisms. We will present the situation of cherry fruit fly regulation in different European countries, give recommendations for cherry fruit fly control, show gaps in knowledge and identify future research opportunities.
Keywords: Rhagoletis cerasi; Diptera; Tephritidae; management; IPM; organic; biology; antagonists; mortality
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MDPI and ACS Style
Daniel, C.; Grunder, J. Integrated Management of European Cherry Fruit Fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.): Situation in Switzerland and Europe. Insects 2012, 3, 956-988.
Daniel C, Grunder J. Integrated Management of European Cherry Fruit Fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.): Situation in Switzerland and Europe. Insects. 2012; 3(4):956-988.
Daniel, Claudia; Grunder, Jürg. 2012. "Integrated Management of European Cherry Fruit Fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.): Situation in Switzerland and Europe." Insects 3, no. 4: 956-988.