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Insects 2012, 3(2), 410-423; doi:10.3390/insects3020410
Review

Reciprocal Trophic Interactions and Transmission of Blood Parasites between Mosquitoes and Frogs

 and *
Received: 13 March 2012; in revised form: 20 March 2012 / Accepted: 21 March 2012 / Published: 3 April 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trophic Interactions of Insects and Amphibians)
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Abstract: The relationship between mosquitoes and their amphibian hosts is a unique, reciprocal trophic interaction. Instead of a one-way, predator-prey relationship, there is a cyclical dance of avoidance and attraction. This has prompted spatial and temporal synchrony between organisms, reflected in emergence time of mosquitoes in the spring and choice of habitat for oviposition. Frog-feeding mosquitoes also possess different sensory apparatuses than do their mammal-feeding counterparts. The reciprocal nature of this relationship is exploited by various blood parasites that use mechanical, salivary or trophic transmission to pass from mosquitoes to frogs. It is important to investigate the involvement of mosquitoes, frogs and parasites in this interaction in order to understand the consequences of anthropogenic actions, such as implementing biocontrol efforts against mosquitoes, and to determine potential causes of the global decline of amphibian species.
Keywords: frogs; insects; parasitism; predation frogs; insects; parasitism; predation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ferguson, L.V.; Smith, T.G. Reciprocal Trophic Interactions and Transmission of Blood Parasites between Mosquitoes and Frogs. Insects 2012, 3, 410-423.

AMA Style

Ferguson LV, Smith TG. Reciprocal Trophic Interactions and Transmission of Blood Parasites between Mosquitoes and Frogs. Insects. 2012; 3(2):410-423.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ferguson, Laura V.; Smith, Todd G. 2012. "Reciprocal Trophic Interactions and Transmission of Blood Parasites between Mosquitoes and Frogs." Insects 3, no. 2: 410-423.

Insects EISSN 2075-4450 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert