Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Driving Forces Behind the Past and Future Emergence of Personalized Medicine
Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ, UK
Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, Christian-Albrechts-Platz 4, 24118 Kiel, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 November 2012; in revised form: 14 January 2013 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 17 January 2013
Abstract: Personalized medicine can be seen as a continuously developing approach to tailoring treatments according to the individual characteristics of a patient. In some way, medicine has always been personalized. During the last decade, however, scientific and technological progress have made truly personalized healthcare increasingly become reality. Today’s personalized medicine involves targeted therapies and diagnostic tests. The development of targeted agents represents a major investment opportunity to pharmaceutical companies, which have been facing the need to diversify their business due to an increasingly challenging market place. By investing into the development of personalized therapies, pharmaceutical companies mitigate a major part of the risks posed by factors such as patent expiries or generic competition. Viewing upon personalized medicine from different perspectives points out the multi-causality of its emergence. Research efforts and business diversification have been two main driving forces; they do supplement each other, however, are not jointly exhaustive in explaining the emergence of this approach. Especially in the future, a number of further stakeholders will impact the evolution of personalized medicine.
Keywords: personalized healthcare; diagnostic testing; genomic medicine; business diversification
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Steffen, J.A.; Steffen, J.S. Driving Forces Behind the Past and Future Emergence of Personalized Medicine. J. Pers. Med. 2013, 3, 14-22.
Steffen JA, Steffen JS. Driving Forces Behind the Past and Future Emergence of Personalized Medicine. Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2013; 3(1):14-22.
Steffen, Julius A.; Steffen, Jan S. 2013. "Driving Forces Behind the Past and Future Emergence of Personalized Medicine." J. Pers. Med. 3, no. 1: 14-22.