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J. Pers. Med. 2012, 2(3), 119-137; doi:10.3390/jpm2030119

Field of Genes: An Investigation of Sports-Related Genetic Testing

Center for the Integration of Genetic Healthcare Technologies, University of Pennsylvania, 1112 Penn Tower, 399 S. 34th St., Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Duke Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy, Duke University, 304 Research Drive, Box 90141, Durham, NC 27708, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 July 2012 / Revised: 22 August 2012 / Accepted: 28 August 2012 / Published: 12 September 2012
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [829 KB, uploaded 12 September 2012]


Sports-related genetic testing is a sector of the diverse direct-to-consumer (DTC) industry that has not yet been examined thoroughly by academic scholars. A systematic search was used to identify companies in this sector and content analysis of online information was performed. More than a dozen companies were identified. Marketing practices observed generally did not target parents for child testing, and marketing images were mild compared to images used in popular media. Information was provided at a high reading level (industry-wide Flesh-Kincaid Grade Levels > 11). While ~75% of companies provide privacy policies and terms of service prior to purchase and ~40% provide scientific citations for their tests. View Full-Text
Keywords: sports; athletics; genetic tests; ELSI; direct-to-consumer sports; athletics; genetic tests; ELSI; direct-to-consumer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wagner, J.K.; Royal, C.D. Field of Genes: An Investigation of Sports-Related Genetic Testing. J. Pers. Med. 2012, 2, 119-137.

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