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Diagnostics 2015, 5(4), 487-496; doi:10.3390/diagnostics5040487

Risk Factors for Possible Dementia Using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination in Shanghai

1
Memory, Ageing and Cognition Centre, National University Health System, Singapore 117600, Singapore
2
Department of Geriatric Psychiatry, Shanghai Mental Health Centre, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200030, China
3
Centre for Aging Studies, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Jawa Barat 16424, Indonesia
4
Psychology Division, School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Brockington Building, Ashby Road, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreas Kjaer
Received: 5 October 2015 / Revised: 16 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 23 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Dementia Screening and Treatment)
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Abstract

Using a combination of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), we investigated the prevalence of possible dementia (DEM) in community-dwelling elderly in Shanghai. Subsequently, we investigated significant risk factors for DEM and generated a DEM self-checklist for early DEM detection and case management. We found that among a total of 521 participants using a HVLT cut-off score of <19 and a MMSE cut-off score of <24, a total of 69 DEM cases were identified. Risk factors, such as advanced age (≥68 years), low education (no or primary level), self-reported history of hypertension, and self-reported subjective memory complaints (SMC) were significantly predictive of DEM. The presence of ≥3 out of four of the above mentioned risk factors can effectively discriminate DEM cases from non-DEM subjects. View Full-Text
Keywords: prevalence; dementia; risk factors prevalence; dementia; risk factors
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, X.; Xiao, S.; Rahardjo, T.B.; Hogervorst, E. Risk Factors for Possible Dementia Using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination in Shanghai. Diagnostics 2015, 5, 487-496.

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