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Diagnostics 2015, 5(4), 497-503;

Early Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: How to Screen and Follow up Patients with Liver Cirrhosis According to the GERMAN S3 Guideline?

Department of Internal Medicine I, Medical University Hospital, Otfried-Müller-Str. 10, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Philippe L. Pereira
Received: 29 September 2015 / Revised: 27 October 2015 / Accepted: 18 November 2015 / Published: 25 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [685 KB, uploaded 25 November 2015]   |  


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is frequently detected in pre-existing liver cirrhosis, but can also develop without such pre-conditions. There is an increasing trend of HCC incidence worldwide. In patients with liver cirrhosis, HCC has become the leading cause of death. At diagnosis the tumor has very often reached an advanced stage and curative treatment options are missing. Thus, early diagnosis would help the patient and prevent increasing healthcare costs. In our review we will summarize the recommendations of the German S3 guideline for the early diagnosis of HCC and will discuss the current literature in this context. The reader will learn which diagnostic tools are available and in what order they can be usefully applied. Surveillance should be done with ultrasound by a skilled examiner, additional imaging at best with state-of-the-art dynamic magnetic resonance. View Full-Text
Keywords: diagnostics; German S3 guideline; hepatocellular carcinoma diagnostics; German S3 guideline; hepatocellular carcinoma

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Plentz, R.R.; Malek, N.P. Early Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: How to Screen and Follow up Patients with Liver Cirrhosis According to the GERMAN S3 Guideline? Diagnostics 2015, 5, 497-503.

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